PERFORMANCE OF WEANER RABBITS FED MAIZE HUSK BASED DIETS WITH AND WITHOUT ENZYME SUPPLEMENTATION


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE
ABSTRACTTABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE
1.0       INTRODUCTION
1.1       Justification of study
1.2       Objectives of the study
1.3       Hypotheses

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       Origin and distribution of rabbits
2.2       Nutrient requirements of the rabbit
2.2.1    Energy
2.2.2    Lipids
2.2.3    Protein
2.2.4    Protein requirement for growth
2.2.5    Protein and amino acids requirement
2.2.6    Mineral elements requirement
2.2.7    Water requirement
2.3       Feeding behavior of the growing rabbit
2.4       Challenges in the use of non-conventional feedstuffs for rabbit
2.5       Strategies to improve the quality of non-conventional feedstuffs for in orporation in rabbit diet
2.5.1    Crop breeding
2.5.2    Feed processing
2.5.3    Feed Additives
2.6       Importance and uses of maize husk in animal feed
2.7       Maize husk in rabbit nutrition
2.8       Role of fibre in rabbit nutrition
2.9       Role of fibre in maintaining rabbit gut health
2.10     Role of fibre in preventing digestive disorders in growing rabbit
2.11     Fibre digestion and degradation by rabbits
2.12     Role of Enzyme in Fibre Digestion and Utilization

CHAPTER THREE
MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1       Experimental site
3.2       Source and processing of the maize husk
3.3       Proximate analyses
3.4       Experiment 1:
3.4.1    Proximate Composition of Maize Husk
3.4.2    Experimental diets:
3.4.3    Management of experimental animals and data collection
3.4.4    Carcass evaluation
3.4.5    Haematological evaluation
3.4.6    Digestibility study
3.5       Data analysis
3.6       Experiment 2:
3.6.1    Effect of Enzyme Supplementation of 20% Maize Husk Based Diets on the Performance of Weaner Rabbits
3.6.2    Management of experimental animals and data collection
3.6.3    Carcass evaluation
3.6.4    Haematological evaluation, Digestibility study and Data Analysis were carried out as described in Experiment 1.

CHAPTER FOUR
RESULTS
4.1       Performance of Weaner Rabbits Fed Graded Levels of Maize Husk as Replacement for Rice Offal
4.2       Carcass Characteristics of Weaner Rabbits Fed Graded Levels of Maize Husk as Replacement for Rice Offal
4.3       Haematological Parameters of Weaner Rabbits Fed GradedLevels of Maize  Husk as Replacement for Rice Offal
4.4       Digestibility of Nutrients by Weaner Rabbits Fed Diets in which Maize Husk  Replaced Rice Offal
4.5       Performance of Weaner rabbits Fed 20% Maize Husk Based Diets Supplemented with Enzyme
4.6       Carcass Characteristics of Weaner Rabbits Fed 20% Maize Husk Based Diets  Supplemented with Enzyme
4.7       Haematological Parameters of Weaner Rabbits Fed 20% Maize Husk Based  Diets Supplemented with Enzyme
4.8       Nutrient Digestibility of Weaner Rabbits Fed 20% Maize Husk Based Diets
Supplemented with Enzyme

CHAPTER FIVE
DISCUSSION
5.1       Performance of Weaner Rabbits Fed Graded Levels of Maize Husk as Replacement for Rice Offal
5.2       Carcass Evaluation of Weaner Rabbits Fed Graded Levels of Maize Husk as Replacement for Rice Offal
5.3       Haematological Evaluation of Weaner Rabbits Fed Graded Levels of Maize Husk as Replacement for Rice Offal
5.4       Nutrient Digestibility of Weaner Rabbits Fed Maize Husk Based as Replacement for Maize Husk Replaced Rice Offal
5.5       Performance of Weaner Rabbits Fed 20% Maize Husk Based Diets Supplemented with Enzyme
5.6       Carcass Characteristics of Weaner Rabbits Fed 20% Maize Husk Based Diets Supplemented with Enzyme
5.7       Haematological Parameters of Weaner Rabbits Fed 20% Maize Husk Based  Diets Supplemented with Enzyme
5.8       Nutrient Digestibility of Weaner Rabbits Fed 20% Maize Husk Based Diets Supplemented with Enzyme

CHAPTER SIX
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
6.1       Summary
6.2       Conclusion
6.3       Recommendation
            REFERENCES



ABSTRACT

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of weaner rabbits fed maize husk based diets with or without enzyme supplementation. In the first experiment, thirty six weaner rabbits were used for the study. Maize husk replaced rice offal at 0, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20% inclusion levels for treatments one to six respectively. Each treatment consisted of six rabbits and each rabbit served as a replicate in a completely randomized design. In the second experiment, each treatment consisted of six rabbits and each rabbit served as a replicate in a completely randomized design. The experimental diets consisted of 20% maize husk supplemented with enzyme at 0.00, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.04% for treatments one to four respectively. Maize husk had significant (P<0 .05="" affected="" and="" average="" b="" body="" cell="" conversion="" cost="" daily="" effect="" feed="" final="" gain.="" gain="" haemoglobin="" kg="" level="" not="" on="" packed="" per="" ratio="" significantly="" volume="" weight="" were="">0.05) by dietary maize husk. However, total protein (TP) was significantly affected. Crude protein, crude fibre, ether extract and nitrogen free extract significantly decreased (P<0 .05="" 0.02="" 20="" 4="" all="" and="" as="" at="" average="" be="" best="" can="" carcass="" concluded="" conversion="" cost="" could="" daily="" declined="" diets.="" diets="" digestibility="" dressed="" dressing="" enzyme="" evaluation.="" experiment="" fed="" feed="" for="" four="" gain="" gave="" husk.="" husk="" if="" in="" inclusion="" increased.="" increased="" increasing="" is="" it="" kilogram="" level.="" level="" levels="" maize="" nutrient="" obtained="" of="" parameters="" per="" percentage="" performance="" poorest="" rabbits="" ratio="" result="" results="" second="" significantly="" skin="" slaughter="" span="" studied="" supplementation="" supplemented="" that="" the="" their="" therefore="" thigh="" this="" to="" tolerate="" twenty="" up="" used.="" was="" weaner="" weight="" were="" while="" with="">




CHAPTER ONE

1.0                                                                        INTRODUCTION

Inadequate animal protein in the diets of people in developing countries has called for the integration of some micro livestock in the farming system as sources of animal protein. Productivity of these livestock will depend to a large extent on their ability to utilize feeds that have no value in human diets. Increased rabbit production is one way of meeting the animal protein requirements of the Nigerian populace (Iyeghe-Erakpotobor et al., 2002). Increased production of breeders can be ensured through proper nutrition and feeding of weaner rabbits. Supply of meat always remains a major constraint in animal production due to the ever increasing cost of conventional feedstuffs occasioned by the competition between man and livestock (Amaefule et al., 2004). The key to abundant animal production is the availability of cheap and balanced feed. Feed dictates how many animals you can grow and how fast they can mature for the market (Aduku, 1992).

Weaner rabbits require 2400-2600 kcal ME/kg of feed 15% crude protein and 9-17% crude fibre (Aduku, 2005). The fibre requirement is higher than that of monogastric animals, because rabbits have a large caecum with microbial organisms which aid in the breakdown of the high fibre. Rabbits possess various attributes that are advantageous in comparism to other livestock, Taylor et al., (1989) noted that rabbit meat is of excellent protein quality, low in total as well as saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium. Therefore, rabbit production is considered a good source of meat in the developing countries where there is an abundance of agro-industrial by-product feedstuffs.

The insufficient supply of feedstuffs at economic prices has continued to limit the production and thus, availability of animal protein in the diets of humans in the developing countries of the world. This situation has compelled animal nutritionists to intensity research into....


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