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Title page
Table of Contents

1.1       Background of the Study
1.2       Statement of Problem
1.3       The Present Work
1.4       Aim and Objectives
1.5       Scope and Limitation
1.6       Significance of the Study

2.1       Concept of Building Maintenance
2.2       Definition of Building Maintenance
2.3       Types of Maintenance
2.4       Forms of Maintenance
2.5       Importance of building Maintenance
2.6       Faulty Design
2.7       Faulty Construction
2.8  Defects in Civil Design
2.8.1 Inadequate provisions for movement
2.8.2 Ignoring aggressive environment & weather condition effects
2.8.3    Ignoring biological effects
2.8.4    Inadequate structural design
2.8.5   Ignoring variation in soil conditions
2.8.6  Ignoring load impact on structural stability
2.8.7    Exceeding allowable deflection
2.8.8  Ignoring wind effect on the structure
2.8.9  Inadequate concrete cover on the reinforcement
2.8.10Improperly locating conduits and pipe openings at critical structural locations
2.9 Architectural Defects in Design
2.9.1  Narrow stairs passages & doors
2.9.2    Not relating exterior material selection to climatic condition
2.9.3    Specifying finishing which needs to be repaired as a whole
2.9.4    Not considering the local climatic conditions when designing the exterior shape
2.9.5 Inadequate joints between finished faces
2.10   Design Defects in Maintenance Practicality and Adequacy
2.10.1 Not considering space or exit for maintenance worker, equipment
2.10.2 Designing for permanent fixing which should be removable for maintenance
2.10.3  Not considering the available maintenance equipment when performing the design
2.10.4  Not considering the maintenance requirements in design
2.11 Defects Due to Consultant Firm Administration &Staff
2.11.1 Lack of Q.A/Q.C program during design
2.11.2 Poor technical updating or staff training
2.11.3 Hiring unqualified designers
2.11.4 Designer field experience
2.11.5 Designer technical background
2.11.6  Designer ignorance of materials properties
2.11.7  Misjudgment of climatic conditions
2.11.8  Misjudgment of user‘s intended use
2.12 Defects Due to Construction Drawing
2.12.1 Lack of references
2.12.2  Conflicting details
2.12.3 Lack of details
2.13     Defects due to Construction Inspection
2.13.1 Lack of inspection
2.13.2 Unqualified inspector
2.13.3  Proponent negligence of the importance of inspection
2.13.4  Weakness  of  inspection  rule  implementing  corrective  actions  during  job execution
2.14   Defects due to Civil Construction
2.14.1 Inaccurate measurement
2.14.2 Damaged form of work
2.14.3 Excavation too close to the building
2.14.4 Painting in unsuitable condition or on unsuitable surface
2.14.5 Inadequate water proofing and drainage
2.14.6  Insufficient reinforcement concrete cover
2.14.7  Cold joints
2.14.8  Loss in adhesion between materials
2.14.9  Early form work removal
2.14.10 Poor soil compaction
2.14.11 Inadequate curing
2.14.12 Lack of communications
2.15     Defects due to Contractor Administration
2.15.1  Not complying with specification
2.15.2 Unable to read drawings
2.15.3  Insufficient site supervision
2.15.4 Poor communication with the consultant and the owner
2.15.5 Unqualified supervision
2.15.6  Speedy completion or cheap quality work
2.15.7  Unqualified work force
2.15.8  Multinational construction experience
2.16   Defects due to Construction Materials
2.16.1  Different thermal movements in dissimilar materials
2.16.2  Selection of material which is unsuitable for existing climatic conditions
2.16.3 Use of nondurable material
2.16.4  Use of expired material
2.16.5  Poor material handling and storage
2.17     Defects due to construction equipment
2.17.1  Wrong use of equipment
2.17.2  Inadequate performance of equipment
2.17.3  Lack of required amount of equipment
2.18     Defects due to Construction Specification
2.18.1 Unclear specification
2.18.2   Not defining adequate material types
2.18.3  Not specifying the QA/QC construction procedure
2.18.4 Not specifying the allowable load limits
2.18.5  Specifying inadequate mix design
2.19  Effects of Defects on Building Maintenance
2.20     Review of Related Past Works
2.21     Research Gap

3.1.1    Research Methodology
3.2       Population Area of the Study
3.3       Method of Data Collection
3.4       Data Analysis
3.5       Spearman Rank Correlation
3.6       Test of Hypothesis

4.1       Presentation of Results
4.2       Discussion of Findings

5.0       CONCLUSION
5.1       Recommendations


The study examined the effects of faulty design and construction on the maintenance of building. A survey of randomly selected samples of 20 builders and 15 architects were conducted. Questionnaires were used to collect data from Architects and Builders. The survey included 11 groups of defects and sub defects in each groups. The predominant severity effects of each defects was assessed and ranked based on the severity index as ranked by both the Builders and the Architects. The results shows that 7 defects were rated as most severe, 54 as moderately severe and 6 defects as slightly severe defects. The results also show that increase in maintenance work is the most predominant effects on building maintenance among other factors of defect with an index value of 100.00 as perceived by both the rank of the Architects and that of the builders. The research however includes a hypothesis that Architects and Builders generally agree on the ranking of the severity defects which was tested and proven to be true. The study concluded that there should be a design review before finally approving the design for construction; maintenance expert should not be overlooked in the planning stage of the project and most importantly the employment of professionals for any building projects.


1.0              INTRODUCTION

1.1              Background of the Study

'To fail to plan is to plan to fail.'— (Wood, 2003)

The essence of all result-oriented work may be identified in this quotation. In the context of design one can adapt this phrase to, 'if a designer fails to plan well the plan will turn out badly'. In understanding this phrase one can use a law of physics as a metaphor. Newton's third law of force is 'For every action there is a reaction'. For designers this law could be interpreted as 'for every design decision/consideration (action) there is a consequence (reaction)'. As such this research tries to explore the actions of design and the consequence of their actions.

The relationship between design, construction and maintenance is closely related but not easily distinguished. (Maisarah, 2012) explained the vital role of design in the early stage of project management. They stated that a functional design can promote skill; economy, conveniences, and comforts while a non-functional design can impeded activities of all types of detract from quality of care, and raise cost to intolerable levels. A typical saying by Vonnegut: everybody want to build and nobody want to do maintenance. In Nigeria building design are copied from other countries without considering the conditions that lead to such design, hence maintenance experts are seldom included to advice on maintenance efficiency of such design. In a related development (Iyagba, 2005) reveal that there are substantial numbers of people who do not know the meaning of maintenance. The mistakes most designer made is believing that a building that is design with the best aesthetics materials requires little or no maintenance, but such notion or argument are wrong because.....

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