ANTIBIOGRAM OF UROPATHOGENIC BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM PATIENTS IN SOME HOSPITALS IN BIRNIN KUDU, JIGAWA STATE, NIGERIA


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page
Abstract
Table of Content

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Background of the study
1.2       Statement of the research problem
1.3       Justification
1.4       Aim
1.5       Specific objectives
1.6       Hypothesis
1.7       Research limitation

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature Review
2.1.1    Classification of UTI
2.1.2    Causative Organism
2.1.3    Epidemiology
2.1.4    Antibiotics used in Treatment of UTI
2.1.5    Recommended Practices for UTI Prevention

CHAPTER THREE
3.1 Materials
3.1.1    Equipment
3.1.2    Reagents and Solutions
3.1.3    Culture Media
3.1.4    Antibiotic Discs
3.1.5    Rapid Identification Kits
3.2       Methods
3.2.1 Hospitals
3.2.2 Study Population
3.2.3 Ethical Clearance
3.3. Media Preparations
3.4       Preliminary Identification of Isolates
3.5       Antibiotics Susceptibility Test
3.6       Determination of Multiple Antibiotics Resistance Index
3.7       Plasmid Curing
3.8       Test for β-lactamase
3.9       Molecular Characterization of some Resistant Isolates


CHAPTER FOUR
4.1       Identification and Distribution of Uropathogens
4.2       Antibiotic Resistance Profile of Isolates
4.3       Determination of Nature of Resistance

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Discussion

CHAPTER SIX
5.1       Summary
5.2       Conclusion
5.3       Recommendation
References
Appendixes



ABSTRACT

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common infection of human being and if untreated could lead to serious complications. This study was conducted to investigate the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of uropathogens from patients in two hospitals in Birnin kudu, Jigawa State, Nigeria. In this study, the antibiotic resistance profile and the plasmid profile of some multi-antibiotic resistant bacteria isolated from urine samples of patients from Birnin kudu community in North-west, Nigeria were analysed. Rapid diagnostic kit systems were used in identification of the isolated bacteria and agar disc diffusion technique was used for the determination of antibiotic susceptibility profiles of the isolated bacteria. Presence of β- lactamase was determined using standardized β-lactamase identification sticks while acridine orange was used for curing of multidrug resistant isolates. The cultures of some multi- antibiotic resistant isolates irreversibly lost their antibiotic resistance with acridine orange treatment, which suggests that the resistant genes could be harboured in the plasmids. The result showed that 94.3% of the isolates were resistant to Ampicillin, Amoxycillin-clavulanic acid (71.5%), Ceftriaxone (35.4%), Cefuroxime (57.3), Cotrimoxazole (73.1%), Nitrofurantoin (24.6%), Chloranphenicol (36.9), Doxycycline (58.0%), Ciprofloxacin (60.0%) and Gentamicin (61.2%). Out of 36 isolates tested for presence of β- lactamse, 66.1% possessed β- lactamases. Plasmid profile studies revealed the presence of plasmid of size range 5184.8kb – 5673.9bp.




CHAPTER ONE

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract. When it affects the lower urinary tract, it is known as a simple cystitis (a bladder infection) but when it affects the upper urinary tract, it is known as pyelonephritis (a kidney infection). Lower urinary tract infection is characterized by burning sensation during urination with either frequent urination or urge to urinate or both and is often accompanied with significant pain (Nicolle, 2008). These symptoms may vary from mild to severe (Lane and Takhar, 2011) and in healthy women, can last an average of six days (Colgan and Willliams, 2011). Upper urinary tract infection is characterized by flank pain, fever, or nausea and vomiting in addition to classic symptoms of a lower urinary tract infection (Lane and Takhar, 2011). Rarely, the urine may appear bloody or contain visible pus. In children, the symptoms may be a fever. Infants may feed poorly, vomit, sleep more or show signs of jaundice. In older children, new onset urinary incontinence may occur.

Escherichia coli is the cause of 80-85% of urinary tract infections, with Staphylococcus saprophyticus being the cause in 5-10% of the cases (Nicolle, 2008). Other bacterial causes include: Klebsiella, Proteus, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacter. These are less common and typically related to urinary catheterization (Salvatore, 2011). Urinary tract infection due to Staphylococcus aureus occur secondary to blood-borne infections (Lane and Takhar, 2011).

Acute uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common clinical syndrome that occurs in women with otherwise normal genitourinary tract (Hooton et al., 2000) with about 3% of the women in the United States visiting a Physician at least once each year.....


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