AN EVALUATION OF THE APHRODISIAC AND FERTILITY ENHANCING EFFECT OF THE METHANOLIC ROOT EXTRACT OF CISSUS POPULNEA Guill.And Perr. (Vitaceae)


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TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page
Abstract
Table of Content
Abbreviation

Chapter One
1.0       Introduction
1.1       Statement of problem
1.2       Justification
1.3       Theoretical frame work
1.4       Aims and objectives
1.4.1    Specific objectives
1.5.      Research hypothesis

Chapter Two
2.0.      Literature review
2.1.      Etiology of aphrodisiac
2.1.1.Classification of aphrodisiac
2.2       Male reproductive organ
2.2.1Functions of male reproductive organ
2.3.   Types of sexual disorders
2.4.   Causes of sexual dysfunction and infertility
2.5.  Diagnosis of sexual dysfunction
2.6.      Management of sexual disorders
2.6.1.Life style changes management approach
2.6.2. Therapeutic management approach
2.7.   Role of medicinal plants in the treatment of sexual dysfunction
2.8.      Plant description
2.9.   Ethno medical benefits Cissus populnea in disease condition

Chapter Three
3.0.      Materials and method
3.1.   Collection of plant material
3.2.      Extract preparation
3.3.      Animals
3.4.      Chemicals and drugs
3.5.      Phytochemical screening
3.6.      Acute toxicity studies
3.7       Pharmacological screening
3.7.1    Experimental design
3.7.2   Physical method of assessing plants with aphrodisiac or fertility effects
3.7.2.1 Mounting frequency test
3.7.2.2. Mating frequency test
3.7.3   Biochemical method of assessing plants with aphrodisiac or fertility effects
3.7.3.1 Collection and separation ofsera samples for biochemical analyses
3.7.3.2 Sperm count and analysis
3.7.3.3 Corticosteroid assay
3.7.3.4Prostate specific antigen assay
3.7.3.5Testosterone
3.7.3.6DPPH assay
3.7.3.7 Liver and kidney function test
3.7.3Psychological method of assessing plants with aphrodisiac or fertility effects
3.7.3.1 Anxiety studies
3.7.3.2. Learning and memory studies
3.8       Statistical analysis

Chapter Four
4.0       Results
4.1       Extract yield
4.2       Phytochemical constituents
4.3       Acute toxicity studies effect of Cissus populnea root extract
4.4       Effect of Cissus populnea root- extract on physical sexual behavior
4.4.1    Male mounting frequency test
4.4.2    Male mating frequency test (sexual episode)
4.5       Biochemical effect of the extract of Cissus populnea root
4.5.1    Effect of extract on sperm count
4.5.1.1. Sperm morphology and motility
4.5.2    Testosterone assay of the effect of Cissus populnea root extract
4.5.3    Cortisol assay of the effects of Cissus populnea root extract
4.5.4    Prostate specific antigen assay of the effect of Cissus populnea root extract
4.5.5    Antioxidant effect of the extract of Cissus populnea root
4.6.1  Liver function monitoring parameters
4.6.2    Kidney function monitoring parameters
4.7       Psychological effect of Cissus populnea root extract
4.7.1    Effect of the extract of Cissus populnea root on anxiety
4.7.2    Effect of the extract of Cissus populnea on memory

Chapter Five
5.0       Discussion

Chapter Six
6.0       Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
6.1       Conclusion
6.2Recommendation
REFERENCE
APPENDIX



ABSTRACT

Aphrodisiac activity of Cissus populnea was assessed using physical, biochemical and psychological methods. Rats were randomized into five groups of six rats. The first group received normal saline (10ml/kg), the second, third and fourth groups received extract doses of 250mg/kg, 500mg/kg and 1000mg/kg respectively while the fifth group received 5mg/kg of sildenafil citrate orally for 28 days. On the 24th day, the effect of the root extract of Cissus populnea (CPRE) on mounting and mating frequencies was evaluated. The psychological (mood) effect of CPRE was evaluated on the 27th day by exposing the treated rats to the elevated plus maze (EPM) for five (5) minutes and the time spent in the open and close arms of the EPM were recorded. On the 29th day, the rats were anaesthetized with diethylether and blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture for biochemical analysis (testosterone, cortisol, prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels, liver and kidney function parameters). Testes were removed and an incision was made at the caudal epididymis were transferred into a petri dish containing normal saline from where sperm samples were collected using a Neubauler ruled chamber to ascertain the sperm count and morphology. The antioxidant effect of CPRE was compared with that of ascorbic acid using DPPH (2, 2- diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl) assay method and was measured at 518nm and the percentage antioxidant activity (AA %) was then calculated.

The acute toxicity study revealed that CPRE was relatively safe. The LD50 value was found to be above 5000mg/kg. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, terpernoids and tannins. CPRE and sildenafil citrate significantly increased mounting frequency (P≤0.05) and mating frequency (P≤0.05) respectively compared to the negative control; maximum effect was observed at the dose of 500mg/kg of the extract. There was significant (P≤0.01) and dose-dependent decrease in sperm count in the extract treated rats. The motility and percentage of abnormal sperm cells also decreased in the extract treated rats compared to the negative control and standard drug sildenafil citrate. The extract produced significant (P≤0.001) and dose dependent increasein testosterone level compared to the control. Significant increase (P≤0.05) in cortisol level was observed in the sildenafil and extract (250 and 500mg/kg) treated rats compared to the control. There was no significant change in prostate specific antigen level in the CPRE however sildenafil citrate treated rats showed significant ((P0.05) increase in PSA level compared to the control group. The administration of the extract did not show any increase in the level of hepatic andnephrotic enzymes. However there was significant increase in AST level in the extract and sildenafil treated rates compared to the control group. The percentage antioxidant activity of ascorbic acid was significantly (P≤0.05) higher than that of the extract. The extract and sildenafil significantly (P≤0.01) increased the time spent in the open arm while significantly (P≤0.01) decreasing the time spent in the closed arm in the EPM compared to the control group.


The methanolic root extract of Cissus populneais relatively safe. The aphrodisiac property may be attributed to a combination of increased in testosterone level, phytochemicals such as saponins and flavonoids and its potential to relieve stress and anxiety. The extract does not have fertility enhancing effect as shown by the decrease in sperm count, motility and increase in percentage of abnormal sperm cell.



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