ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL RATIOS AS AN AID TO ECONOMIC ANALYSIS (A CASE STUDY OF UNION BANK NIGERIA PLC IBADAN)


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ABSTRACT
          The first chapter in this project deals with introduction of the project, historical background of the case study.
          Also, this chapter includes other aspect engulfing and surrounding the study which has to do with the statement of the problem, objective of the study and definition of some important key terms.
          The chapter two reveals the literature review, which shows what different  authors have said concerning financial ratios. It also includes the significance ratios analysis, the basic types of ratios, financial analysis, limitation of financial analysis.
          The chapter three, deals with the research methodology employed. It includes the research question hypothesis, type of research done, instrument used, sampling techniques, study of population, sample size, and procedures for data collection.
          The chapter four show the presentation and analysis of the data, the distribution of the questionnaire, analysis and findings from the questionnaire, analysis of data collection. The general analysis with the test of hypothesis and presentation of results.
          The last chapter, which is chapter five, highlights the recommendation, the conclusion and the summary of the research of this project.



TABLE OF CONTENT
·        TITLE PAGE
·        CERTIFICATION                                                                           
·        DEDICATION                                                                       
·        ACKNOWLEDGEMENT                                                      
·        ABSTRACT                                                                           
·        TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                 

CHAPTER ONE
1.1     Introduction                                                                                     
1.2     Historical Background of the study                                        
1.3     Statement of problem                                                             
1.4     Objective of the study                                                            
1.5     Research questions                                                                          
1.6     Research hypothesis                                                               
1.7     Significance of study                                                              
1.8     Limitation and scope of study                                                
1.9     Definition of terms                                                                           

CHAPTER TWO
2.1     Literature Review                                                                   
2.1.1  A brief overview of Ratio analysis                                         
2.2     Financial analysis- definition                                                  
2.3     Lending appraisal                                                                   
2.4     Basic types of financial Ratio                                                 
2.5     Illustration and interpretation                                                
2.6     Significance of Ratios analysis                                                         
2.7     Limitation of financial Ratios                                                 

CHAPTER THREE
3.1     Research methodology                                                           
3.1.1  Primary data                                                                                    
3.1.2  Secondary data                                                                       
3.2     Sampling method                                                                   
3.3     Methods of data analysis                                                                 

CHAPTER FOUR
4.1     Presentation and analysis of data                                           
4.2     Analysis of questionnaire                                                                
4.3     Analysis of interview                                                             

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0     Findings, Conclusion and recommendations                                    
5.1     Findings                                                                                 
5.2     Conclusion                                                                             
5.3     Recommendation                                                                    
Bibliography                                                                          
Appendix I – Proposal                                                           
Appendix II – Questionnaire





CHAPTER ONE
1.1     INTRODUCTION
          Management should be particularly interested in knowing the financial strengths of the firm to make their best use and to be able to spot out the financial weakness of the firm to take suitable corrective actions.
          Thus, Economic analysis is the starting point for making plans, before using any sophisticated for casting and budgeting procedures.
          The strength and weakness of the firm need to be understood, so that the firm will be at equilibrium through the use of the strengths. To proper advantage and taking corrective actions against any weakness observed or reigned.
          Although, emphasis is focused on outsider users such as creditors and owners, management is aware that their performance will be received by these external parties and for other reasons. For example the basic financial statements are used to assets the effectiveness of management in planning and controlling operations as well as for decision making.
          Management also recognizes that the evaluation of past operation as revealed by the analysis of the basic statements, represent a good starting point in future operation and serves as an important means of assessing past performance, and in forecasting and planning future performance.
Published financial statement are properly oriented towards the long-term earning power short-term creditors such as major suppliers or banks are usually more interested in the short term ability of corporations to satisfy its obligations as they fall due.
          As regards to union Banks, they use mostly financial ratios to obtain clue as to future performance.
          This project has been embarked on mainly to give a general idea on how to make use of financial ratios aids in economic analysis. It also hopes to point out certain deficiencies associated with union bank of Nigeria PLC Ibadan.
          In so doing, this project has been divided into different chapters, each discussing vital point or aspects.
          The first chapter centers mainly in the purpose of study, its objectives, significant and limitations associated with it. It will help to highlight problems relating to the ratio and its use.
          The next chapter is just a simple discussion on the financial ratios. It is the literature review of the project it tells us what different author have said in relation to the topic and also their points of view on the topic.
Chapter three is a belief narration on how the research of this project has been carried out, the difficulties encountered and the type of facts and sampling, I here based this project on.
The last two chapters on the other hand is detailed analyze of data gotten from union bank of Nigeria PLC, Ibadan.
From this, I was able to draw some conclusion and deduced facts which have all been summarized in the last chapter.
Various means have embarked on to make this project possible.


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___________________________________________________________________________
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