THE INFLUENCE OF BROADCAST MEDIA CAMPAIGNS ON CHILD KILLER DISEASES ON THE HEALTH BEHAVIOUR OF RESIDENTS OF ENUGU STATE

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ABSTRACT

Child killer diseases have continued to be a major health issue affecting children in Enugu State, Nigeria and the world at large. These diseases are the major cause of morbidity and mortality of children under the age of five. Research findings reveal that there are top 5 diseases which kill children in Sub Saharan Africa and as such, can be easily prevented and treated. Thus, this study examines the influence of broadcast media campaigns on child killer diseases on the health behaviour of residents of Enugu State. The study is based on two theories, Health belief Model and Theory of Reasoned Action. In order to find out the influence of the broadcast media campaigns on the residents, a descriptive survey research method was adopted. The sampling technique employed for the study was multi-stage sampling and two research instruments were used to obtain data. Four hundred and five (405) copies of questionnaire were administered to the residents in the three senatorial zones in Enugu State. The zones were Enugu East, Enugu North and Enugu West. Three hundred and ninety one (391) were filled and returned. Data collected for this study were analyzed with the use of quantitative and qualitative methods of data analysis. With the aid of Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) version 16.0, simple percentages and mean were used for the study while results were presented in tables and charts as may be suitable. Findings reveal that broadcast media campaigns on child killer diseases influence the residents to a large extent. Thus, broadcast media campaigns on child killer diseases have to a large extent contributed to the awareness level of child health issues in Enugu State. Findings further revealed that educational level, cultural belief, income level and perceived seriousness of the disease were among other factors that influence respondents’ health behaviour. The study therefore recommends that, more health programmes should be originated to empower residents in Enugu State with various ways to combat the child killer diseases and reduce the percentage to a tolerable level.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page
Table of Contents
List of Tables
List of figures
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Objectives:
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Significance of the Study
1.6 Scope of the Study
1.7 Definition of Terms
Reference

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Focus of Review
2.2 Conceptual Review
2.2.1 Health, Disease and Child killer diseases
2.2.2Causative Agents of Child Killer Diseases and Mortality
2.2.3 Major Child Killer Diseases in Nigeria
2.2.4 Child Health in Enugu State
2.2.5 The Role of the Broadcast Media in the fight against Child Killer Diseases
2.2.6 Broadcast Media Programmes on Child Killer Diseases in Nigeria
2.3 Empirical review of Related Study
2.4 Theoretical Framework
2.4.1 The Health Belief Model (HBM)
2.4.2 The Theory of Reasoned Action
Summary of the Literature
Reference

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population of the Study
3.3 Sample Size
3.4 Sampling Technique
3.5 Research Instruments
3.6 Method of Administration of Instruments
3.7 Validity and Reliability of the Instruments
3.8 Method of Data Analysis
References

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.1 Sample Characteristics
4.2 Answers to the research questions
4.3 Discussion of Findings
References

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendations
Bibliography
Appendix

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study
Children as we all know are the future of every society and parents or caregivers, particularly mothers, are the guardians of this future. It is however, disturbing that the future of these children is under threat as a result of the prevalence of different child killer diseases. The World Bank report (2005) revealed that, each year 3.3million babies are still born, about 4 million die within 28 days of coming into the world and about 6.6 million children die before their fifth birthday. An estimated 11 million children die every year, the majority from preventable causes such as pneumonia, diarrhoea, malnutrition, malaria, measles, HIV/AIDS and neonatal causes (UNICEF, 2015). Accordingly, Shoo (2008, p.1) reveals that, “an approximately 14 percent of global child mortality burden are in Africa”. Today, sub-Saharan Africa alone accounts for almost 50 percent of child mortality, although it constitutes only 11 percent of the world’s population.


In 2000, the United Nations special session launched the eight point Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and reducing infant mortality rate is the MDGs goal number 4. Thus, the MDGs target an average annual rate reduction of 4.3 percent. The MDGs instigated “by the global community focuses attention, resources, and action on improving the well-being of all peoples” (Ogunjimi, Ibe, & Ikorok, 2012, p.34).The 2015 target date is at hand, Nigeria is still not listed among the ten countries that seemed to have made rapid progress to meet the target of the Millennium Development Goal 4, aimed at reducing infant mortality rate (Ogunjimi et al., 2012). It is glaring that child mortality rate in Nigeria more especially in the rural areas is very significant. As a result, it has implications for the attainment of the MDGs. It was based on this that Efe (2013) pointed out that Nigeria’s overall health system performance was ranked 187th position among the 191 Member States of the World Health Organization in 2000.The Federal Ministry of Health (2004) cited in Efe (2013, p.244) also revealed that “infant mortality rate of 115 deaths per 1,000 live births; under-5 mortality rate of 205 deaths per 1,000 live births; and maternal mortality ratio of 948 deaths per 100,000 live births is one of the highest in the world”.
Majority of child mortality cases occur due to inadequate sanitation, environmental pollution, unsatisfactory health behaviours and inadequate health facilities. In a degraded environment, human health is threatened and in Nigeria, particularly in rural areas, environmental pollution has become a significant challenge to public health. Research has shown that “worsening trends of global environmental degradation, including the erosion of ecosystems, increased pollution, and the effects of climatic changes, contribute to the burden of disease confronting children, in both developed and developing countries” (United Nations Environment Programme & WHO,2010). A number of communicable diseases such as diarrhoea, typhoid, dysentery, cholera, yaw; malaria, yellow fever, and relapsing fever that affect children mainly are related to improper disposal of wastes. Apart from that, a greater number of the community members lack access to clean water. Obviously, a child’s well-being is highly dependent on both the quality and the availability of water, and on how well this precious resource is managed (www.who.int).

Infant health status provides a snapshot of a country’s social and economic vibrancy (Clay, Bridgette & Collier, 2006). For instance, the monetary loss due to malaria in Nigeria is estimated to be about 132 billion naira in terms of treatment cost, prevention and loss of man-hours (FMOH, 2007). However, improvement in infant health benefits society not only by increasing survival rates but in improving the overall quality of life, of families, communities, and thus the nation. For this reason, infant mortality rates are the basic indicators of a country’s socio-economic situations and quality of life (NDHS, 2008). The rates are important for identifying population groups at risk, planning, monitoring, and evaluating population and health programmes and policies; and monitoring progress towards the Millennium Development Goals to reduce infant or child mortality by two thirds by the year 2015 (NDHS,2008).

Broadcast media campaigns are coordinated efforts to achieve set objectives. Sandman in Day and Monroe (2000, P.80), cited in Gever and Nwabuzor (2014) posit that campaigns are designed to increase awareness, inform or change behaviour in target audience. Broadcast media have a mandate to create awareness on the general public on issues of public importance such

as child killer diseases that have been ravaging the country. In some instances, the broadcast media have packaged and aired different awareness campaign with a view to promoting the desired health behaviour among the populace.
Health behaviours are attitudes aimed at living a healthy life. Health behaviour has received a considerable attention from researchers particularly those in the field of health promotion and health maintenance. Kasl and Cobb (1996) in Adegoke (2010, p.27) put forward a very broad definition of health behaviour as “any activity undertaken by a person believing himself to be healthy, for the purpose of preventing disease or preventing it in an asymptomatic stage.” Adegoke further stressed that, the goal of health behaviour from an epidemiological stand point, is to intervene in and prevent the contact between the host and the disease agent, detect if a disease or injury is present or asymptomatic, and improve the resistance of the host of the disease. This study thus investigates the influence of broadcast media campaigns on child killer disease on the health behaviour of the residents of Enugu State......

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