THE GROWTH OF ART EDUCATION IN BENUE STATE SECONDARY SCHOOLS

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ABSTRACT


Fundamentally, art is self expression through visual factors arranged to satisfy the needs of a person. It is a procedure of technique and design for the conveyance of attitudes, ideas or personalised feelings in visual form. From various considerations on the subject, art is a human endeavour which requires skills. However, art as important as enumerated above had its share of problem of growth in Benue State Secondary Schools. The major problems are lack of adequate manpower, materials, poor funding and the general negative attitude of some cultures and even government towards the subject. Furthermore, materials and infrastructure to gainfully involve those in the education sector of art in most cases are lacking. This research is poised to determine the growth of art education in Benue State Secondary Schools and the extent to which it has achieved the objective of equipping students to live effectively in this modern age of science and technology. The research design used for this study was survey method. The study was conducted in Benue State, using 500 selected art professionals, drawn randomly from among the art teachers in Benue State Secondary Schools, Staff of Benue State Art Council, Benue State Ministry of Education Staff, Staff of National Gallery of Art in Benue State and other private art professionals in Benue State. These people were the source of the data collected and used for this study; they thus formed the sample size. One questionnaire instrument as well as one model question guide for personal interview were developed, validated and used for data collection. The instrument (questionnaire) was administered on the sample subjects and their responses collected. The percentage recovery of the questionnaire on the subject was 87%. The researcher also personally interviewed some 50 other art professionals who responded variously. After a careful collation and analysis of the data using simple percentage to provide answers to the research questions, the rate of the development and the growth of art in Benue State Secondary Schools was traced and determined. The result of the study indicates that there is a significant growth in the teaching and learning of art education in Benue State Secondary Schools. It is further clear from the study that teachers who use appropriate art materials for instruction have their students’ attention, perform better than teachers who do not use appropriate art material in the classroom. From teachers’ responses, most of those who use art materials in teaching had a sense of relief and job satisfaction. Where art materials are lacking, teachers became exhausted from talking in attempt to explain certain art concepts to students. Teachers who do not use appropriate art materials in the classes find teaching a herculean task; this affects the assimilation process of the students. It is discovered that the lack of art materials lead to waste of quality time and energy, the outcome is discovered to affect learning and teaching of the subject negatively thus impeding on the growth and development of art education in Benue State Secondary Schools.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title Page
Table of Content
List of Tables
Abstract

Chapter One: INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background of the Study
1.2       Statement of the Problem
1.3       Purpose of the Study
1.4       Research Questions
1.5       Significance of the Study
1.6       Scope of the Study

Chapter Two: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       Introduction
2.2       Instructional Material Education
2.3       Current Art Education and the Teacher’s New Role
2.4       Value of Art Education Application
2.5       Summary of Related Literature

Chapter Three: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1       Area of Study
3.2       Research Design
3.3       Population and Sample
3.4       Sample Technique
3.5       Source of Data
3.6       Validity of the Instrument
3.7       Procedures for Data Collection and Analytical Techniques

Chapter Four: ANALYSIS OF DATA AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.1       Introduction
4.2       Available Art Materials in Selected Schools in Benue State
4.3       Analysis of Performance of Teachers Based on the Use or Lack of Use of Materials
4.4       Summary of Findings
4.5       Discussion of Findings

Chapter Five: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1       Introduction
5.2       Summary
5.3       Conclusion
5.4       Recommendations
5.5       Areas Suggested for Further Research
            References
            Appendix

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the Study

The definition of art has never been satisfactorily established yet,

probably because it is everywhere about us; it is taken for granted and

rarely considered. It is however present in everything man makes to

please his senses.

Some authorities have however, tried to define art in various ways;

Palmer    in    Usman    (2001)    defined   art    as    “any      individualized

demonstration  of a  graphic or  plastic  nature, expressing  symbols  or

concepts. Fundamentally it is a self expressive process through visual

factors arranged to satisfy the needs of the person who develops them.

It is a procedure of technique and design for the conveyance of attitudes,

ideas  or  personalized  feelings  in  visual  form”.  He  explains:  it  is  an

integration of sensing, thinking, feeling and expression through the use

of  various  media  such  as  pencil,  pen,  clay,  colour,  wood  metal  to

mention  a  few.  Palmer  explaining  Gombrich’s  idea  of  art  in  Usman

(2009) stated thus:


Gombrich a veteran art historian, anticipating the diffidently in tracking down the term “Art” by the way of concrete definition simply submits that “there really is no such thing as art, there are only artists”. Art may mean very different things to different places and at different time”.
The Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary defines art as a ‘practical skill or its application guided by principles”, it goes further to explain it as: “…application of skill to production of beauty (especially visible beauty) and works of creating imagination as in the fine art”.

A look at the Oxford Dictionary leaves us with the thought of art as being “a human skill as opposed to nature”. It further explains it to mean “craft” and even ‘a practical application of any science’. Leo Tolstory in Usman (2009) defines art as a means of expression. In other words, art communicates the innate feelings of the artist. The expression of ones thought or imagination could not have been fulfilled if not expressed through art. That is to say, if one does not make another person to know what is in his mind, it remains there. Without art, there is no communication. If a thought is not expressed it is hidden in the mind.

From the forgoing considerations on the subject “Art” by the different authorities, one comes to accept that there are some certain fundamental issues that seem to cut across the entire views. These include the fact that Art is a human endeavour; requires skill; and that it results into production of objects.


The importance of art in general education cannot be overemphasized, as Eze position in Usman (2009) regarding the role of art in general education sums it all:
Art today is regarded as a lone subject. This is because the national curriculum on education has not emphasized art as a prerequisite for the overall performance or success in other subjects. One cannot be a medical doctor, engineer, great scientist or even chartered accountant if they cannot draw the basic anatomies of man, the components that make up his engineering models or graphs and maps that direct one to find answers to hidden questions in his chosen career.

However art as important as enumerated above had its share of problem of growth in Benue State Secondary Schools. The major problems are lack of adequate manpower, lack of materials, poor funding and the general negative attitude of some cultures and even government towards it; furthermore, materials and infrastructures to gainfully involve those in the education sector of art are in most cases


lacking. At times, with the few staff and students, there are no adequate.....

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