TEACHING AND LEARNING NEEDS FOR FAMILY LIFE AND HIV EDUCATION CURRICULUM IMPLEMENTATION OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OBOLLO-AFOR EDUCATION ZONE ENUGU STATE

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ABSTRACT


The purpose of the study was to find out the teaching and learning needs for family life and HIV education curriculum implementation of secondary school in Obollo-Afor education zone, Enugu State. To realize the purpose of the study, nine specific objectives with corresponding research questions were posed and two null hypotheses postulated for the study. The descriptive research design was used for the study. The population for the study consisted of 10,139 students and 99 FLHE teachers, while the multi-stage sampling procedure was used to draw a sample of 350 students and all the FLHE teachers were used for the study. The instrument for data collection was the 31 and 25 item researcher designed questionnaire for teachers and students respectively was used for the study. The research questions were answered using means and percentages while the null hypotheses were tested using the t-test and chi-square statistics. The major findings of the study were as follows: teachers engaged in re-training to teach FLHE in secondary school, and teachers engaged in seminar to teach FLHE. Magazine, Posters, Pamphlets, and Television were mostly the teaching aids available for FLHE curriculum implementation in schools. The methods teachers mostly used for the implementation of FLHE in schools were demonstration, story-telling, lecture and discussion. FLHE teachers used the FLHE time table as stipulated in the time table, teachers teach FLHE at their own convenient time and also teachers used FLHE time table to teach other topics of other subjects in schools. There were conducive classrooms, FLHE section in library, and halls for students for the implementation of FLHE curriculum in secondary school. Posters, chalkboard, and FLHE textbooks were mostly the available learning aids in school for FLHE. The methods mostly used for the learning of FLHE in school were the demonstration, discussion, story-telling and lecture. To a high extent learners used FLHE time table as it is in the school time table, to a high extent teachers only teach the students when they want to and students miss FLHE class because the teacher did not come to class. Facilities mostly available for learning FLHE were library, trained teachers, conducive classroom, and drama hall. There was a significant difference in the response of experienced and less experienced FLHE teachers on the methods of teaching FLHE and utilization of FLHE time table in school. There was also no significant difference in the response of male and female FLHE teachers on the availability of teaching aids and methods of teaching FLHE in school respectively. The researcher recommended that the SMOE should make the teaching and learning of FLHE compulsory in school to help the students (adolescents) with the correct information about their body from birth to death through the right source for the prevention and spread of HIV among the adolescents. SMOE and PPSMB should mount seminars, workshops for FLHE teachers and establish resource centers in the education zone for easy teaching and learning of FLHE in secondary schools.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Tile Page
Table of contents
List of Tables
List of Acronyms
Appendices
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE: Introduction
Background to the Study
Statement of the Problem
Purpose of the Study
Research Questions
Hypotheses
Significance of the Study
Scope of the Study

CHAPTER TWO: Review of Related Literature
Conceptual Framework
Family Life and HIV education
Teaching
Learning
Teaching and Learning Needs
Curriculum
Human development
Personal skill
HIV infection
Society and culture
Factors Affecting Teaching and Learning
Teaching method
Competency of the teacher
Insufficient period on the school time table
Students’ characteristics
Administrative factors
Curriculum course content
Lack of conducive environment
Figure 1: Diagrammatic Representation of the Concepts for Teaching and Learning
Needs for FLHE Curriculum Implementation in Secondary School
Theoretical Framework
Cognitive field theory
Diagrammatic Representation of Theoretical Framework for Teaching and
Learning Needs For FLHE Curriculum Implementation in Secondary Schools
Empirical Studies
Summary of Literature Review

CHAPTER THREE: Methods
Research Design
Area of the Study
Population for the Study
Sample and Sampling Technique
Instrument for Data Collection
Validity of the instrument
Reliability of the Instrument
Method of Data Collection
Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: Results and Discussion
Results           
Summary of Major Findings
Discussion
Utilization of FLHE trained teachers
Availability of teaching and learning aids for FLHE in secondary schools
Teaching and learning methods for FLHE curriculum implementation in secondary schools
Utilization of FLHE time table for FLHE curriculum implementation
Availability of facilities for FLHE curriculum implementation
Differences in the responses of experienced and less experienced teachers on the implementation of FLHE curriculum in secondary schools

CHAPTER FIVE: Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
Summary
Conclusions
Recommendations
Limitation of the study
Suggestions for further studies
References
Appendices

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

Background to the Study

The structure of the Nigerian Population in the early 1980s brought about the emergence of the population and family life education (POP&FLE) programme, which the Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) has worked hard on the implementation in Nigeria to date. However, the resolutions and programme of action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) made it imperative that emphasis should now be on Reproductive Health including family planning and sexual health amongst other issues of human population. Furthermore, the global concern and the recent scourge of HIV and AIDS in Nigeria brought to the fore the urgent need to deal with adolescent reproductive health issues without further delay. In 1998 for instance, 60 per cent of all reported cases of HIV and AIDS came from the age group 15-24 years, who constitute more than 50 per cent of the national population (NERDC, 2003). In order to vigorously mainstream HIV and AIDS prevention in schools, the sexuality education curriculum had to be reviewed and redesignated as Family Life and HIV Education (FLHE) curriculum for primary, secondary and tertiary levels of education in Nigeria. In essence, the directive of the 49th session of the National Council on Education (NCE) in September 2002 which authorized total inclusiveness of state concerns about culturally acceptable humanity gave rise to FLHE curriculum(NERDEC,2003).
The FLHE curriculum is structured in such a way that it provides a framework for the acquisition of knowledge of self and family living from childhood to adulthood (NERDC, 2003). According to NERDC, FLHE curriculum also reflects a comprehensive approach to HIV prevention education from primary to tertiary levels of education. NERDC further stated that the curriculum is organized around six components: such as human development, personal skills, sexual health, sexual behaviour and society and culture. Each theme covers knowledge, attitude and the necessary skills that are age appropriate. International Women Health Coalition.- IWHC, (2003) stated that FLHE curriculum theme is learner oriented as the many activities are geared toward making learning practical and pupil centered. IWHC posited that the content to be learnt are spirally arranged so that there is continuity and rising depth of content as the students move from one level to the other. The report further explained that the curriculum as structured will lead to the comprehensive coverage of the topics listed, leading to the achievement of intended learning outcomes for FLHE.
FLHE is an educational programme designed to assist young people in their physical, emotional and moral development (International Planned Parenthood- IPP, 1998). The report revealed that FLHE prepares secondary school students for adulthood and ageing, as well as their social relationships in the family and society. FLHE is a planned process of education that fosters the acquisition of factual information, formation of positive attitudes, beliefs and values, development of skills to cope with the biological, socio-cultural and spiritual aspects of human living (NERDC, 2003). NERDC listed the main goal of FLHE as the promotion of preventive education by providing learners with opportunities to develop a positive and factual view of self, acquire the information and skills needed to take care of their health and prevention of HIV and AIDS. According to the report, it is also to respect and value themselves and others and to develop skills to make healthy decisions about their sexual health and behaviour. Global Health Awareness and Research Foundation – GARF (2005) describes FLHE as a means of emphasizing the basic information about the family mechanism to the adolescents, through education. The report posited that it enlightens the in-school adolescents on how to manage their reproductive health issues, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), prevent teenage pregnancies and desist from the predicament of HIV and AIDS. FLHE is a process by which the in-school adolescents learn to develop, improve understanding of life in the family and live a life full of physical, social, emotional and moral potentialities (Family Life Foundation Institute, 2006).


Bill (2005), Bowker (2006), and Adeogbelowi (2007) stated that FLHE have created an opportunity for in-school adolescents to know that HIV and AIDS exist, the need for abstinence and the ability to make the right decision as a result of access to correct information and personal skills in school. They confirmed that through the implementation of FLHE curriculum in secondary schools a large number of the adolescents will be reached with the knowledge of STls and HIV and AIDS. Similarly, Shofoyeke (2007) posited that FLHE is designed to address the captive audience, both in primary and junior secondary schools, who are considered as the window hope of the society, but since the FLHE curriculum has not been implemented in primary schools, the junior secondary school will be the target. He further contended that it helps the adolescents to develop abilities such as negotiation, assertiveness, copying with peer pressure, compassion, self-esteem and tolerance. This may be the reason Momodu (2007) stated that FHLE curriculum is not about sex but sexuality education which provides the ability to understand ones body from birth to death. FLHE means inculcating in the secondary school students the necessary information, formation of positive attitude, as well as development of personal skills to cope with biological, psychological and moral aspects of human living to grow as healthy adults. This will be achievable through the provision of those needs that will make FLHE curriculum implementation feasible.

Need is the gap between the available resources for teaching and learning and the actual resources to achieve the goals of teaching and learning (Farrel, 2010). He stated that it is something that is important for teaching and learning to take place. A need is a minimal condition in a situation or environment to reach an ideal situation (Jean, 2006). According to him, it is expressed as the capacity to reach a condition or to perform a task according to a required minimal level of satisfaction. He further explained that need arises from the presence of a gap between the fulfillment of this need and the situation experienced by a person. This gap is called the situation of need. Smith (2006) opined that in a school environment the situation of need experienced by a student expresses itself as an inability, a great difficulty or great restriction in performing a given task. He stated that a person in a situation of need experiences insecurity, marginality and also situation of handicap. According to him also, the reaching of this minimal level creates an avenue for the student to perform the task according to an acceptable minimal level. Here, need is the gap in the availability of teaching and learning resources for FLHE curriculum implementation in secondary schools. These resources could be the teaching resources such as the teachers, textbook and conducive environment.

Olaitan (1998) opined that teaching involves the presence of the teacher who needs to be knowledgeable in the curriculum content to implement the curriculum. Teaching needs are those things that makes teaching feasible for the teacher (Onwumelue, 1999). He included competency of the teacher, availability of educational materials for teaching, conducive environment and methods of teaching, depending on the curriculum content to be implemented. For the implementation of FLHE curriculum in secondary school, there should be available instructional materials, trained FLHE teachers to discuss sex related issues, utilization of FLHE time table in school and facilities (Adebiyi, 2007). He suggested that teachers be re-trained and also create a conducive learning environment to aid teaching of the life skill topics in FLHE curriculum content to enable the future adults cope with the challenges of sexual life and HIV infection.

Conducive learning environment refers to the physical and spatial environment for teaching (Okeke,1990).He stated that inadequate facilities limit the amount of work by teachers in the implementation of any curriculum or programme. He further pointed out that the major impediments of teaching is lack of adequate facilities. According to him also, if the....

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