SOCIO- DEMOGRAPHIC CORRELATES OF JOB SATISFACTION AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL SPORTS ADMINISTRATORS IN AWKA EDUCATION ZONE OF ANAMBRA STATE

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ABSTRACT


The purpose of this study was to ascertain the socio- demographic correlates of job satisfaction among secondary school sports administrators in Awka Education Zone of Anambra State. The study was guided by eleven specific purposes and eleven corresponding research questions. Six null hypotheses were also postulated and verified at .05 level of significance. A cross-sectional survey design was employed to generate data for the study. The population for the study comprised the sixty two secondary school sports administrators in the zone. The entire population was utilized for the study as there was no need for sampling given the number of respondents within the population. A validated structured four point Likert type questionnaire adopted from the Minnesota satisfaction questionnaire (1977) was utilized for data collection. The generated data were analysed using mean and simple regression statistics. The study revealed that: The secondary school sports administrators in Awka Education Zone of Anambra State were not satisfied with payment, promotion, and nature of work itself and this led to their low job satisfaction. It also revealed that the sports administrators were, however, satisfied with supervision and ‘relation with co-workers’ which revealed that they were not part of the factors that laid to low job satisfaction of the sports administrators. It was further revealed that age, marital status, level of education, gender, years of working experience and location had no statistically significant relationship with job satisfaction among secondary school sports administrators. Following from these findings and the conclusions there from, relevant recommendations were made.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page
Table of Content
List of Tables
List of Figures
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE: Introduction
Background of the study
Statement of the problem
Purpose of the study
Research questions
Hypotheses
Significance of the study
Scope of the study

CHAPTER TWO: Review of Related Literature
Conceptual Frame work
Theoretical Frame work
Socio-Demographic Variable of job satisfaction
Measurement of job satisfaction
Empirical studies on correlate of job satisfaction
Summary of Review of related literature

CHAPTER THREE: Methods
Research design
Population for the study
Sample and sampling techniques
Instrument for data collection
Validity of instrument
Reliability of instrument
Method of data collection
Method of data analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: Results and Discussion of Findings
Summary of major findings
Discussion of findings
Implication of the study

CHAPTER FIVE: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
Summary
Conclusions
Recommendations
Suggestions for further study
Limitation of the study
References
Appendices


CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

Background to the Study

The happier people are with their jobs, the more satisfied they are said to be (Weiss, 2002). Job, according to Hornby (2001) refers to work in which one receives regular payment. This implies that job must involve work and if the person does not receive a regular pay at the end of the work, it is no longer a job. An important feature of work is expectation of future reward which could be by way of payment. The effectiveness of an employee depends substantially on his or her level of job satisfaction.
Arches (1991) defined job satisfaction as the positive and pleasurable feelings and attitudes determined by the extent to which an individual perceives his or her job as fulfilling his or her needs. Spector (1997) considered job satisfaction to be a global feeling about the job or as a related constellation of attitudes about various aspects or facets of the job. In the same vein, Brief (1998) defined job satisfaction as an internal plot that is expressed by affectively and or cognitively evaluating an experienced job with some degree of favour or disfavour. Keshtkaran (2005) viewed job satisfaction as a product of harmony of one’s positive individual attitudes towards his or her work and capability of the individual within his or her duties and with the working conditions governing the job. In the present study, job satisfaction is the overall view and feeling of sports administrators towards their job or specific aspects of their job.


Warr, Cook and Wall (1979) viewed job satisfaction as a bi-dimensional construct consisting of intrinsic and extrinsic satisfaction dimensions. Supporting this, D’Addio, Eriksson and Frijters (2008) observed that one’s job satisfaction can be determined after the assessment of the intrinsic and extrinsic job characteristics. They further explained that the intrinsic characteristics are concerned with job content, work intensity, risk of ill-health or injury, and relationship with co-workers and managers. According to them, the extrinsic job characteristics are concerned with financial rewards, working time, work or life balance, job security, and opportunities for promotion. This implies that job satisfaction of sports administrators can be determined by assessing the intrinsic and extrinsic job characteristics.

Roznowski and Hulin (1995) pointed out that the most important information to have regarding an employee is a validated measure of his or her level of job satisfaction. This is in line with the views of Luddy (2005) who noted that organizations are interested in assessing the current state of their employees’ job satisfaction. Hence the need to establish the socio-demographic correlates of job satisfactions among Sports Administrators.

Cherrington (1994) asserted that high job satisfaction of employees contribute to organizational commitment, job involvement, improved physical and mental health, and improved quality of worker’s life both on and off the job. Job satisfaction according to Abdullah, Shuib, Muhamad, Khalid, Nor and Jauhar (2007) is an important element influencing firm’s performance. According to them, high level of job satisfaction will produce a positive attitude towards job commitment, which in turn can reduce the level of absenteeism, termination of service, negligence at work, and increase effort towards work excellence and productivity. This implies that high job satisfaction of sports administrators will contribute to their job commitment and involvement

On the other hand, Price (1977) noted that employees with low job satisfaction have a high likelihood to quit their job. This is supported by Shaw (1999) who reported that there is a high inclination for an individual to quit job if his or her level of job satisfaction is low. Additionally, employees in such a situation are also likely to absent themselves from work (Macshane, 1984). This implies that low job satisfaction of sports administrators will contribute to their absenteeism, negligence and finally quitting their job.
Wikipedia foundation (2006) unveiled that one of the biggest preludes to the study of job satisfaction was the Hawthorne studies. These studies, he opined, sought to find the effects of various conditions on workers productivity. They ultimately showed that novel changes in the work conditions temporarily increase productivity. It was later found that this increase resulted not from new conditions but from the knowledge of being observed. This implies that apart from pay, people work for other purposes as well. This paved the way for researchers to investigate other factors in job satisfaction and the importance of ensuring job satisfaction of workers.
Some factors obviously affect job satisfaction. Sencer (1982) identified social factors influencing job satisfaction to include wage, management policy, security, working conditions, possibilities of promotion, gaining respect, achievement and use of talent. Jayaratne (1993) acknowledged security, wage, management policy, possibility of promotion, and gaining respect as factors affecting job satisfaction. In the same vein, Kose (1995) identified social relations, wage, size......

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