PUBLIC PERCEPTION OF RADIO NIGERIA PROGRAMME, “About HIV/AIDS”: A STUDY OF SOME SOUTH EASTERN STATES OF NIGERIA

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ABSTRACT

This study evaluated public perception of Radio Nigeria programme, About HIV/AIDS in South East Nigeria by focusing on two target states- Enugu and Ebonyi. The study adopted the survey research design and collected data through a 28 item semi-structured questionnaire. A total of 384 respondents were drawn as sample size from a population of 5,444,184, in Enugu and Ebonyi states. The process of behaviour change theory, the communication–persuasion model and the health belief model, served as theoretical foundations for the study. The instrument for data collection was face validated by the supervisor while the reliability was ascertained for internal consistency using the split-half technique. The split-half test showed a reliability of 70%. Data was analyzed using excel software and the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) to determine frequencies and percentages. The data were presented in tables, pie-charts and bar charts. Findings showed that majority of the respondents were aware of About HIV/AIDS radio/Nigeria programme. Also there was significant influence related to HIV/AIDS information level. The study found that majority of the respondents perceived About HIV/AIDS programmes as very useful. Usefulness was in the areas of influencing the adoption of new behaviour towards HIV/AIDS, positive attitude and awareness with regard to HIV/AIDS. Also, there was significant influence related to prevention and stigmatization information among the respondents. Findings also showed that About HIV/AIDS programme influenced respondents in the areas of HIV/AIDS prevention treatment and control behavior. Among others, the study recommends that there is need to explore other strategies for making the About HIV/AIDS programme of radio Nigeria, Enugu, more attractive to the target audience.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page
Table of Content
List of Tables
List of Figures
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background of Study
1.2       Statement of Problem
1.3       Objectives of the Study
1.4       Research Questions
1.5       Significance of the Study
1.6       Definition of Terms
            References

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       Focus of Review
2.1.1    History of HIV/AIDs in Nigeria
2.1.2    The Role of Radio in Creating HIV/AIDs Awareness
2.1.3    Health Delivery Communication Programmes
2.1.4    Communicating Health
2.1.5    Radio and HIV/AIDs Interventions in Nigeria
2.1.6   Public perception of Radio’s Role in Health Delivery in Nigeria
2.2       Theoretical Framework
            References

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1       Research Design
3.2       Population of Study
3.3       Sample Size
3.4       Sampling Techniques
3.5       Instrument for Data Collection
3.6       Validity and Reliability of Research Instruments
3.7       Method of Data Analysis
            References

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1       Data Presentation
4.2       Discussion of Findings
            References

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1       Summary
5.2       Conclusion
5.3       Recommendations
BIBLIOGRAPHY
APPENDIX



CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1         Background of Study
Like many African countries, Human Immuno deficiency Virus/Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a serious concern in Nigeria. By the turn of the century, it was estimated that the HIV prevalence in Nigeria had exceeded 5%, which corresponds with approximately four million infected people. In 2010, the HIV prevalence had exceeded 5.4%, with some estimates putting the number of infected Nigerians around 5 million. The estimated annual deaths as a result of HIV/AIDS has increased from 50,000 in 1999 to over 350,000 in 2004, at enormous cost to the economic and health sectors in the country. . Consequently, some countries in Africa, including Nigeria, have responded by drawing up HIV/AIDS communication strategies to strengthen their national response capacities to the epidemic (Srivastava et al, 2011).

Although various communication intervention campaigns have shown ways for prevention and care for those living with AIDS, the health outcomes on HIVAIDS, remain relatively low (Keating, 2006). This is despite available literature which have shown that communication intervention is associated with positive health outcomes.

Behaviour change communication activities through mass media have been shown to be an effective approach in improving people's knowledge about various diseases (Fakolade, 2010). The Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) caused by Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV) remains the most serious of infectious disease challenges to public health apart from Ebola virus and therefore there is need for communication intervention to improve people’s knowledge about health outcomes related to HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment. The United Nations adopted to halt and reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS as one of its Millennium Development Goals. The estimated number of persons living with HIV and deaths due to AIDS worldwide in 2013 was 33.2 million and 2.1 million respectively. Nearly ninety five percent of the global total, live in the developing world (Srivastava et al, 2011). The biggest challenge lies in developing programmes to spread awareness and to induce behavioral changes among the populace.


Perhaps, the most powerful role of the media is setting the appropriate agenda in the goal of HIV/AIDS prevention, care, and support, especially given that the way a problem is defined determines the way the people try to solve it. The ability of the media to convey adequate and accurate information can be highly effective and successful in creating awareness and knowledge that can lead to changes in social contexts within which individuals operate, especially in developing countries (Okidu, 2013).

Out of the estimated 33.2 million people worldwide living with the virus in 2012, Nigeria has the third-largest number after India and South Africa, with an estimated figure of 2.9 million. An estimated 168,474 people in the country became newly infected in this year. The first National HIV/AIDS Strategic Framework in Nigeria was implemented from 2001 to 2004, while the second phase was from 2005 to 2009. At the expiration of the first phase, the National Response review report indicated significant achievements in several areas of its implementation, including the response of the mass media and generally the communication sector (NACA, 2005).
People living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHAs) often face stigma and discrimination, especially in developing countries. HIV-related stigma is expressed through social ostracism, personal rejection, direct and indirect discrimination, and denial from families and friends. Consequently, it is associated with reduced adoption of preventive and care behaviours, including condom use, seeking for HIV test and care-seeking behaviour subsequent to diagnosis. Ignorance about the epidemiology of the disease on modes of transmission and prevention aggravates HIV-related stigma in Nigeria. Fakode (2010) found that, exposure to mass media communications on HIV and AIDS issues and social support were significantly related to the reduced stigma and discrimination against PLWHAs.


In response to the growing HIV epidemic in Nigeria, the radio Nigeria Enugu station, which aimed to increase use of family planning, child survival, and HIV/AIDS services as mass-mediated intervention campaign, initiated the Programme, About HIV/AIDS”.....

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