PERCEIVED INFLUENCE OF ELECTRONIC MEDIA ON SPORTS DEVELOPMENT IN ANAMBRA STATE, NIGERIA

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ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study was to determine the perceived influence of electronic media on sports development in Anambra state, with reference to provision of sports facilities, sports personnel development, funding of sports, creation of sports awareness, encouraging people’s participation and attracting sports sponsorship. Description survey research design was used in the study. In pursuance of the specific objectives, six research questions were formulated with three hypotheses. The sample for the study consisted 146 respondents made up of all the 21 sports Administrators in the 21 local government areas in Anambra state and the 125 Anambra state athletes who were in the camp at the time of the study. A researcher – made instrument titled Perceived Influence of Electronic Media on Sports Development Questionnaire (PIEMSDQ) with a reliability coefficient of .68 was used for data collection. The result of the data analysis, using criterion mean of 2.50 and t-test at .05 level of significance showed that electronic media influence the provision of sports facilities, personnel development, funding of sports, creation of sports awareness, encouraging people’s participation and attracting sponsorship for sports competition in Anambra state. The finding further revealed that there is a significant difference between sports Administrator and Athlete’s perceptions on influence of electronic media on provision of sports facilities, sports personnel development and creation of sport awareness.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page
Table of Content
List of Tables
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE: Introduction
Background of the study
Statement of the problem
Purpose of the study
Research questions
Hypotheses
Significance of the study
Scope of the study

CHAPTER TWO: Review of Related Literature
Conceptual framework
•           Sports
•           Sports development
•           Electronic media
•  Effects of electronic media and sports development
Theoretical framework
•  Shannon’s model of communication
Empirical studies
Summary of Literature Review

CHAPTER THREE: Methods
Research Design
Area of the Study
Population for the Study
Sample and Sampling Techniques
Instrument for Data Collection
Validity of the Instrument
Reliability of the Instrument
Method of Data Collection
Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: Results and Discussions
Results
Summary of Major Findings
Discussion
Perceived influence of electronic media on provision of sports facilities
Perceived influence of electronic media on sports personnel development
Perceived influence of electronic media on funding of sports
Perceived influence of electronic media on creation of sports awareness
Perceived influence of electronic media on encouraging people’s participation in sporting activities
Perceived influence of electronic media in attracting sponsorship competition

CHAPTER FIVE: Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
Summary
Conclusions
Recommendations
References
Appendix

CHAPTER ONE
Introduction
Background to the Study
In sports industry today, the significant role media are playing in the development of sports all over the world is obvious. Apart from the fact that the media have increased sport awareness and spectatorship among people of the world, it has also increased revenue generation which has enriched various sport stakeholders. According to Smith and Blackman (1982) sports and mass media clearly rely on each other to prosper. The mass media profit from offering valuable commodity which is sports information to the public, in turn sports gain popularity and wealth by offering broadcast right. Sports influence peoples’ daily lives, playing a key role on their socialization and entertainment which greatly affect their health.

According to Ihediwe (1997), sports are highly formalized and organized physical activity of high intensity regulated by accepted rules and regulations and which require maximum physical or mental exertion. Ugwueze (2005) defined sports as all organized physical or mental activities with rules and regulation carried out indoors or outdoors whether at amateur or professional level requiring physical or mental exertion. In this study, therefore sports is defined as an individual or group activity, pursued for exercise or pleasure, often involving the testing of physical capabilities and taking the form of a competitive game such as tennis, football and basketball. Sports development of any nation, including Nigeria depends substantially on the status of their motivation of athletes among others.


Sports development, according to the Federal Republic of Nigeria Sports Development Policy (1989) is defined as the process of continuous improvement of the sport structure, institution and programmes in order to create a societal condition conducive to physical fitness for all and for effective functioning and self-actualization. Collins, (1995) viewed it as the processes whereby effective opportunities, processes, systems and structures are set up to enable and encourage people in all or particular groups and areas to take part in sports and recreation or to improve their performance to whatever level, they desire. In this study, therefore sports development is defined as the process of using electronic media as a system or structure to enable and encourage provision of sports facilities, personnel development, funding of sports, sports awareness, participation and sports sponsorship in a particular group or area to improve their performance. Many agencies including the media play significant roles in achieving sports development objectives.

Hornby (2001) defined mass media as the means of communication through which a large number of people could be reached. These include newspapers, television, radio, films, handbills, posters, computer and internet. Details of sporting events, athletes and other individuals involved in athletics fill the pages of newspapers, magazines, books, and internet websites, as well as countless hours of radio and television. People in every city and community around the world form a long lasting bond with sports teams and athletes. Millions of fans set their daily schedules around the listening to; viewing of, and reading about sports. Currently, sports programmes or events, products and services are marketed through mass media. Alimi (2003) posited that media had been playing a catalyst role for the identification and the promotion of knowledge, information and understanding in a nation. In the global community, sports are used as a tool to promote good health, unify people of various tribes, races, and colour, promote international relations and good will, develop the entertainment industry and also to promote manufacturers’ products. With the age of sports globalization, technology has enhanced opportunities for international communication, interaction and market (Ugwueze, 2005).

Conceivably, the type of media that has had the greatest impact on development of sports is electronic media. According to free online encyclopedia (2011) electronic media are the broadcast or storage media that take advantages of electronic technology which include television, radio, Digital Video Disc (DVD) internet, Compact Digital Read only Memory (CDROM) and many other media that require electricity or digital encoding of information. According to Indiana University Policy (2012), electronic media is defined as any device that is used to store or record electronic information, including but not limited to hard disks, magnetic tapes, compact disks, videotapes, handheld electronic devices and removable storage devices such as floppy disks and zip disks. In this study, electronic media is regarded as the media such as television and radio that use electromechanical energy to enable and encourage provision of sports facilities, personal development, funding of sports, sports awareness, participation and sports sponsorship in a particular group or area to improve their performance.
In 1996, the Centennial Olympic Games which held in Atlanta Georgia attracted almost quarter million people and media representatives to the city to enjoy the gala. It was estimated that an additional 1.5 billion people watched the games through network and cable television (Marketing Matters, 1996). Verveer (2001) stated that the Sydney Olympic Games were broadcast to 220 countries and territories, making them the most-watched television sports event in history. According to Ping and Chiung (2009) the Summer Olympic Games and Winter Olympic Games hosted every four years, attracts billions of viewers and listeners who enjoy the competitions through electronic media, hence the relationship between sports and electronic media.

Heinemann (2003) describes the mutual interest of sports and electronic media as follows: the widespread coverage of sport via electronic media contributed to its popularization. Interest in a particular sport rises considerably, when its television coverage is extensive. The electronic media’s role in this particularly reciprocal relationship centres on the huge injection of money it provides to sports; this creates an ever-ascending spiral that has meant better media coverage of sports, better sports equipment and facilities, larger sports audiences, additional sponsorship opportunities and larger athlete and staff salaries. Electronic media benefits on the other hand, from using sports as a powerful promotion outlet attracting advertising contracts and the viewing public’s attention. Through electronic media, one can appreciate the outstanding performance of elite athletes. This process gets more people involved in sports, brings more media participation, and creating a positive circle. The symbolic relationship between sports and media creates nothing less than a win-win strategy, in that note, the more sports broadcasts, the larger the audience that gets involved in sports. These audiences are mostly made up of sports administrators and athletes, of which their efforts are mobilized for sports development.


According to Awoyinfa (2004) a sports administrator is anyone at any level of sports organization who directs the effort of other people towards the achievement of organizational goals sport wise. Association of Graduate Careers Advisory Services (2011) posited that sports administrators help to ensure the smooth running of a sports organization, which may range from reception work at local sports club to marketing or human resources at a major club. In this study, sports administrators are those who direct the effort of other people (athletes) for sports development both at state and local council levels in Anambra state such as coaches, sports instructors...

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