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The purpose of the study was to investigate patterns of health-related work-family conflict and intervention strategies among commercial bank employees in Enugu State. The population for the study comprised 2021 commercial bank employees in Enugu state. Five hundred and fifty employees of the commercial banks that were drawn using the random sampling technique constituted sample for the study. Nine research questions were posed while six hypotheses were tested. Three instruments were used to generate data for the study. The first instrument was the Health-related Work-family Conflict Inventory questionnaire (HRWFCI) which had three sections. Section A tapped information on the demographic variable, spatial and temporal patterns of work-family conflict. Section B of the questionnaire consisted of adapted strain inventory with reliability index of .77. Section C of the questionnaire comprised the adapted Depression Inventory with reliability index of .68. The second instrument was the Key Informant Interview Schedule (KIIS) which was used in gathering qualitative data for the study. The third instrument was the Work- family Conflict Intervention Strategies Evaluation Questionnaire (WFCISEQ) formulated by the researcher, using the result of the study. It sought information on the intervention strategies needed for bankers to use in mitigating the health-related effects of their work-family conflict. The generated data were analysed using mean scores, standard deviations, percentages, student t-test, One-Way Analysis of Variance, Scheffe test and Chi-square. The findings revealed that the bank employees reported; moderate levels of work-family strain and depression experience. Employees who worked in the Head offices demonstrated significantly, higher level of strain than their counterparts who worked in the branch offices t(475, 3.240, P<.05) while employees of info-tech and marketing sections showed significantly high level of work family strain experience than employees in operation and internal control sections F(-2.123, and P – value = .007) and F(-1.209 and P – value = .052) respectively. The study further showed that employees who worked in the branch offices experienced significantly higher level of work-family depression than their counterparts who worked in the head offices t(475, -3.028, P < .05) while employees of the operations section of the banks differed significantly from those in the marketing, internal control and info-tech sections in their levels of work-family depression experience f(-3.810 and p – value = .000). Employees who had worked for 5 years and above differed significantly from their counterparts who had worked for less than 5 years in their levels of work-family strain experience t(475, -2.884, P < .05). Thirty item intervention strategies comprising seven objectives and twenty three contents were deemed appropriate by experts. Following from these findings, it was recommended among others, that management should: adopt the Work-family Conflict Intervention Strategy that was formulated for bankers in the course of this study and emphasize the issue of prevention and early intervention levels of the strategy. It was also recommended that proper orientation be given to new employees using the Work-family Conflict Intervention Strategy.


Title page
Table of Contents
List of table

CHAPTER ONE: Introduction
Background of the Study
Statement of the Problem
Purpose of the Study
Research Questions
Significance of the Study
Scope of the Study

CHAPTER TWO: Review of Related Literature
Conceptual Framework
Concept of Pattern, Health, family and conflict
Concept of Work-family conflict and health-related work-family conflict
Intervention Strategies in Relation to Work-Family conflict
Theoretical Framework
Pattern theory
Role theory
Conservation of resources theory (COR)
Spill over theory
Empirical Studies on Work-Family conflict
Impact of work-family conflict on employees’ health and well-being
Spatial pattern of health-related work-family conflict
Temporal pattern of health-related work-family conflict
Demographic pattern of health-related work-family conflict
Intervention strategies needed for work-family balance
Summary of Literature Review

Research Design
Area of the Study
Population for the Study
Sample and Sampling Techniques
Instrument for Data Collection
Validity of the instrument
Reliability of the instrument
Methods of Data Collection
Methods of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: Results and Discussion
Major Findings
Discussion of Findings
Implications of the Study

CHAPTER FIVE: Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
Limitations of the study
Suggestion for further study



Background to the Study

Work and family form the hallmark of human existence. These are the institutions that have supported humankind across the centuries as they serve fundamental human needs. Work and family have served and still serve different functions and as such, it is reasonable to expect them to fulfil different sets of needs, values or desires. For instance, at the biological level, love does not provide food and work does not bring about increase in species. Howard (1995) noted that before the advent of industrial revolution, work and family roles were cast as mirror images reflected along life’s path, with the two arenas demarcated by a hopeful expression of life satisfaction. In other words, work and family roles were mutually connected to each other bringing about life satisfaction among people living across the World.

In Africa, the history of the people and their patterns of work and family activities during the nineteenth century were full of domestic struggles. Domestic roles took and still take the greatest potion of the people’s times, affecting their opportunity to participate in the work force. Jain and Banerjee (1985) revealed that, in addition to domestic activities among African people such as child bearing and nurturing, African women are engaged in caring for themselves, their husbands, children and their elderly parents. They perform activities such as cooking, cleaning, collection of fire wood, cleaning grain, fetching water, carrying clothes to a river or pond outside the village for laundering as well as taking meals to family members in the fields (Eze, 1993). According to Desai (1994), on the average, African people spent 6 to 7 hours per day performing these domestic activities, of which 1.5 hours were spent away from their homes and neighbourhoods. Worters (1994) added that gender roles were more rigidly defined at that time and that for families to function effectively, a division of labour was required in which men specialized in instrumental tasks such as providing for the family’s economic and material needs while women specialized in expressive tasks of caring for the family’s physical and emotional well-being.

It was the advent of industrial revolution that severed work and family into separate worlds, distinct in time, place and function. In search of greener pasture, men moved into the cities and engaged in paid work many miles away from their traditional homes, while women and children remained behind at home. A couple of decades ago, African continent experienced yet another dramatic change that facilitated the increasing change in the patterns of work and family role conflicts experienced by many today. In Nigeria, the Universal Primary Education (UPE) was introduced in 1976 and the programme was designed to ensure that every Nigerian child, irrespective of sex, attended primary school at no cost to parents. This programme provided girls equal access with boys to basic education and afforded girls the opportunity of competing with boys. Many of these girls progressed and acquired higher qualifications in institutions of higher learning, they acquired skills needed in the world of work and become increasingly hired in jobs previously reserved for men (Nwangwu, 2003).

Eze (2004) noted that women, having attained educational levels comparable to those of men, have started responding to expanding opportunities and invested themselves particularly in business, administration, finance and other professional jobs reserved for men. Eze equally asserted that education pulled men and women into the economy. Through formal schooling men and women gained information and skills that were useful to their work and, in some cases, are inclined to work not only for the desire for economic independence, but also for self-achievement, social position, satisfaction, and the power that a paid job provides. Today, there are increasing number of men and women in Nigeria’s workforce.

In addition, some technological break-through, which reduced the number of traditional jobs that relied on sheer physical strength also contributed immensely to women’s entry into the work force since they could perform the new job as men. Ugwu (2008) observed that when women joined the labour force, men adjusted their work role and incorporated more family responsibilities while women assumed more seemingly active role in the workplace. This situation had been earlier described by Brief and Nord (1990) as a condition that brings about complexity in gender roles, where everyone occupies more than one role, a situation that gives rise to the employees experiencing of inter-role conflict. Poppleton, Briner and Kiefer (2008) contend that this inter-role conflicts centre on a cluster of linking mechanisms, in which work and family roles are in disagreement, spilling-over from one arena to the other.
Edward and Rothbard (2000) gave a historical synthesis of patterns of work and family role conflict, contending that the suggestion that work and family affect each other had emerged by the 1930s. They observed that the pervasive assumption during the 1950s was that work and family were interdependent, though some diverging opinions were emerging and by the early 1970s, there was uniformity in the assumption that work and family roles were intertwined. Today, there is considerable agreement that there is an overlap between work and family roles which creates a new emphasis on the balance between work life and family life among employees who juggle both work and family roles. According to Brett and Stroh (2003), the change in patterns of conflict between work and family roles occurs as a result of women’s incorporation of work roles into already existing family roles, which leaves both men and women employees with mounting responsibilities. This recent intrusion of work roles into family roles stimulated many authors and researchers interested in work-family issues to offer different definitions of work.

Kanter (1977) defined work as any physical, mental or social activity performed with the intention of promoting and maintaining health and well-being or other objective of providing goods and services. Kline and Cowan (1988) defined work as tasks or activities which included non-market and volunteer activities performed by an individual with an objective in mind. Moen, Kelly and Huang (2008) categorized work into two namely; family work and organisational work. They noted that the significance of this categorization is that work can occur in the family and the organisation and that the family and organisation are similar. Hence, they defined work as tasks or activities which take place in both the family and the employing organisation. The present study will define work as any physical, mental, or social activity performed by employees in an organisation with the intention of promoting and maintaining health and well-being or other objectives of providing goods and services. This definition will be suitable for the present study since the work performed by employees in both family and organisational setting is geared towards the promotion and maintenance of health and well-being and with the objective of providing goods and services.

Burke and Bradshow (1981) posited that work and family are two inseparable constructs and that for optimal enjoyment and experience to flow in the family there must be work. Consequently, Burke and Bradshow defined family as two or more people interacting with, responding to or having the capacity to influence one another for the interest of accomplishing some goals and with a sense of shared identity. Netemeyer, Boles and McMurrian (1996), in agreement with the above definition of family, affirmed that work is like the spine which structures the family. They described family as a setting where work is being performed with non-specified worker’s hierarchical position and without formal supervisory structure or bureaucratization.

Parasuraman and Greenhaus (2002) conceptualized family as the realm of affectivity and intimacy where two or more people interact in significantly ascribed relations. The present study will adopt the definition of family as given by Burke and Bradshow (1981)....

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