EVALUATION OF THE NOMADIC PRIMARY SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION CURRICULUM IN ADAMAWA STATE OF NIGERIA

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ABSTRACT
This study evaluated the nomadic primary school Health Education curriculum in Adamawa State of Nigeria. Specifically, the study determined the: extent of achievement of objectives of Health Education curriculum; teacher-pupil ratio and quality of human resources available for the implementation of the nomadic Health Education curriculum; adequacy of the Health Education content in addressing the nomads unique style of life; teaching methods used in nomadic Health Education programme; availability of Health Education instructional materials in nomadic primary schools; use of instructional materials in nomadic schools; learning experiences and activities of the pupils’ during instruction; assessment devices used by the nomadic primary school Health Education teachers; difficult areas in the content of Health Education curriculum as perceived by both the teachers’ and pupils’; and pupils demonstration of Health Education knowledge and skills. The study employed evaluative research design. Stufflebeam’s Context, Input, Process and Product (CIPP) Model was used. The population of the respondents includes: 117 nomadic primary schools in Adamawa State Nigeria; 26,292 respondents comprising of 564 teachers, 12,848 pupils, 21 Education Secretaries, 11 Supervisors, and the 12,848 nomadic Parents of the pupils. A disproportionate stratified random sampling technique was used to draw respondents for the study. From the six zones, 585 respondents were used consisting of 120 teachers, 300 pupils, 150 nomadic parents, 9 education secretaries and 6 supervisors. Five instruments were used for the study: Questionnaire with a four-point scale, Checklist, Observation Schedule, Interview Schedule and Focus Group Discussion Schedule (FGDS). Five experts validated the instruments. The instruments for the study were trial-tested on 60 teachers and 90 pupils. The data obtained from the trial tests were analysed and the Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient obtained were .95 on attainment of objectives, .98 on adequacy of Heath Education content, .99 on difficult content areas and .99 on pupils demonstrations of knowledge and skills as perceived by both the teachers and pupils. The overall reliability coefficient was .99. The data collected on the 12 research questions were analysed qualitatively, and quantitatively using mean rating scores, standard deviation, frequency counts and percentages. The four hypotheses stated were tested at 0.05 level of significance using t-test for HO1, HO3 and HO4 and chi-square for HO2. The results of the study showed that: The objectives of Health Education were achieved, Teacher-pupil ratio of 1:23 shows that there were enough teachers for the programme, teachers quality was inadequate, the content of Health Education programme in nomadic schools was adequate, Teachers appeared to use teacher-centered methods that are passive rather than pupil-centered methods that are activities based and participatory, Instructional resources were inadequate in the nomadic schools, Teachers use of instructional materials was generally low, Pupils were more or less passive during classes, Teachers use of assessment devices indicated more frequent use of oral device, Content areas of Health Education curriculum was adequate; Pupils demonstrated knowledge and skills of Health Education to a great extent, Attainment of Health Education objectives in settled and mobile schools indicated significant difference in favour of pupils in the mobile schools. The number of qualified teachers in the nomadic schools is independent of whether school is settled or mobile. There were no significant differences on the difficulty of the content areas and pupils’ use of Health Education knowledge and skills in settled and mobile schools. The educational implications of the findings were highlighted. The following recommendations among others were made: Provision of adequate instructional materials; Teacher training and retraining on the use of instructional materials and methodology in nomadic schools should be undertaken.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page
Table of Contents
List of Tables
List of Figures
Appendices
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Statement of the Problem
Purpose of the Study
Significance of the Study
Scope of the Study
Research Questions
Hypotheses

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Conceptual Framework
Nomadic Education Programme in Nigeria
Health Education Curriculum
Curriculum Evaluation
Settled and Mobile Schools
Theoretical Framework
Stufflebeam (1967) CIPP Model
Review of Related Empirical Studies
Summary of Related Literature

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODS
Design of the Study
Area of the Study
Population of the Study
Sample and Sampling Technique
Instruments for Data Collection
Validation of the Instruments
Reliability of the Instruments
Method of Data Collection
Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS
Research Questions
Research Question 1
Research Question 2
Research Question 3
Research Question 4
Research Question 5
Research Question 6
Research Question 7
Research Question 8
Research Question 9
Research Question 10
Research Question 11
Research Question 12
Research Hypotheses
Hypothesis One
Hypothesis Two
Hypothesis Three
Hypothesis Four
Results of the Focus Group Discussion Schedule (FGDS)
Summary of Major Findings of the Study

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION, IMPLICATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUMMARY
Discussion of Findings of the Study
Conclusion
Educational Implications of the Findings of the Study
Recommendations
Limitations of the Study
Suggestions for Further Studies
Summary of the Study
REFERENCES
APPENDICES


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION


Background of the Study
Building an egalitarian society demands that the poor must have access to good education. As the majority of the poor in Nigeria live in the rural areas (Tahir, 2005), there is need for efforts to be geared towards alleviating educational problems in the rural environment. It can be noted that not only is education widely recognized as the greatest force that can be used to bring about redress, it is also the greatest investment that a nation can make for the quick development of its economic, political, and human resourcefulness. The global consensus is that education (Enu, 2007) should be a process that helps the whole human being to develop physically, mentally, morally, socially and technologically. Education should primarily equip the individual with the skills and knowledge which would help him/her to transform economically. Thus beyond the process of providing education for the populace is the need for quality and affordable opportunities that are supportive to meaningful education of the participants.


Believing that education is the cornerstone for national development, Nigeria has placed education as the principal instrument for effective national development. Thus the philosophy of education is based on the integration of the individual into a sound and effective citizenship with equal educational opportunities at all levels through the formal and non-formal school system. More importantly, the government of Nigeria recognizes that the provision of a functional education would be the primary means of upgrading the socio-economic conditions of the rural population. Education is therefore a weapon for inculcating social values and practices, medium for preparing citizens for change to enable them master new skills and techniques for development.

The National Curriculum Conference held from 8th – 12th September, 1969 marked the turning point in Nigeria’s curriculum developments. The curriculum conference became a platform for the desire of a new homegrown policy on education that can clean off aspects of the colonial system with doubtful relevance to the aspirations of the nation goals and objectives (Kolawole, 2009, Esu, Enukoha and Umoren, 2006). The gap between policy prescription and practical situation has remained wide. Equally important, is the current National Policy on Education which has its developmental roots in the national curriculum conference. The National Policy on Education has since its adoption remained a very significant landmark and reference point in the country’s educational programmes. This policy calls education “the most important instrument of fundamental change in any society” (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004:8). Thus, without any fear of contradiction, education remains the most important enterprise in Nigeria’s present society.
The policy describes primary education as the education given in an educational institution to children aged normally between 6-11 years plus, prior to their entry into junior secondary school. Since the rest of the educational system is built upon it, primary education is the key to success or failure of the whole educational system.     Hence, primary education has seven objectives, (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004) to include the following;

The inculcation of permanent literacy and numeracy and ability to communicate effectively, the laying of sound basis for scientific and reflective thinking, the provision of citizenship education as a basis for effective participation in and contribution to the life of the society, the molding of character and development of sound attitude and morals in the child. The development of the child’s ability to adapt to his/her changing environment, the provision of the child’s opportunities for developing manipulative skills that will enable the child function effectively in the society within the limits of the child’s capacity, and the provision of the child with basic tools for further educational advancement including preparations for trades and crafts of the locality (p.14).

Thus,  Nigeria’s  National  Policy  on  Education  makes  it  clear  that  the

government recognizes education as the greatest investment that the nation can

make to bring about rapid development of its economic, political and human

resources (Utulu, 2007&Anwukah, 2000). Undoubtedly, among the numerous

agents for transforming human society and improving the fortunes of personal

or individual groups and the society, education stands as an eminent one (Agwu,

2009). Education therefore remains the cornerstone for personal and general

development. Thus it is the most powerful instrument for social change and

remains the greatest power yet known to man for his own growth and

development (Maduewesi, 2005). No doubt the objectives of the Universal

Basic Education (UBE) as stated in the implementation guidelines hold a lot of......

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