EFFECTS OF PROCESSING METHODS ON THE BIO-FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF PHYSIC NUT (Jatropha gossypiifolia) LEAVES

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ABSTRACT


Jatropha gossypiifolia leaves were processed and fermented at room temperature at different time intervals. The products were further analysed to determine the nutritional and anti – nutritional components. The best samples were selected based on the iron content of the products. Bioassay study was carried out on albino rats to determine the effect of treatment on blood sugar level, haemoglobin, cholesterol, liver and kidney function. From the results, fermented juice and powder from Jatropha gossypiifolia leaves had no significant effect on the haemoglobin level. The fermented juice had a positive effect on blood sugar level. On day 0, different doses of samples were not significantly different (P≥ 0.05) from each other. On day 10, the medium dose and the high dose of extract differed slightly from others. On day 20, the highest dose of extract differed significantly (P≤ 0.05) from the medium and lowest dose. It was observed that high doses of fermented extract reduced blood sugar level than low doses of fermented extract. However, fermented products of Jatropha gossypiifolia had no significant effect on cholesterol level of albino rats. The clinical chemistry tests – SGPT and SGOT for liver function tests ranged between 39.97 iu/l as the lowest to 44.39 iu/l as the highest for SGPT and 65.75 iu/l as the lowest to 73.40 iu/l as the highest for SGOT. These values are within the normal range of 35 – 60 iu/l for SGPT and 45 – 80 iu/l for SGOT. Also, the results of blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine for kidney function tests are within the normal range of 10 – 55 mg/dl. These values showed that fermented products of Jatropha gossypiifolia had no toxic effect on the liver and kidney of albino rats. From these results, it was deduced that fermented extract could be used as a dietary supplement for diabetics.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page
Abstract
Table of contents
List of tables
List of figures

Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1: Justification of study
1.2: Aims and Objectives of study

Chapter 2: Literature Review
2.1: Description of functional foods
2.2: Sources of functional foods
2.3: Types of functional foods
2.4: Differences between functional foods, nutraceuticals and phytochemicals
2.5: Vegetables as sources of functional foods
2.6: Importance of vegetables
2.7: Description of physic nut
2.8: Origin of physic nut
2.9: Properties of physic nut
2.10: Uses and detriments of physic nut
2.11: Methods of vegetable processing
2.12: Extraction of vegetable juices
2.13: Processing of functional foods from vegetables
2.14: Effect of heat on vitamin content of vegetables
2.15: Mineral content of vegetables
2.16: Vitamin and mineral fortification of vegetables
2.17: Effect of fermentation on vegetables

Chapter 3: Materials and Methods
3.1: Procurement of materials
3.2: Preparation of samples
3.3: Analytical methods
3.3.1: Proximate analysis
3.3.1.1: Determination of moisture content
3.3.1.2: Determination of ash
3.3.1.3: Determination of crude protein
3.3.1.3.1: Digestion
3.3.1.3.2: Distillation
3.3.1.4: Determination of crude fibre
3.3.1.5: Determination of crude fat
3.3.1.6: Total carbohydrate determination
3.3.1.7: pH determination
3.3.1.8: Determination of total solids
3.3.1.9: Determination of soluble solids by refractometer
3.3.2: Chemical analysis
3.3.2.1: Mineral content analysis
3.3.2.2: Vitamin content analysis
3.3.2.3: Determination of anti-nutritional factors
3.3.2.3.1: Determination of phytate
3.3.2.3.2: Detremination of tannins
3.4: Bioassay
3.4.1: Determination of haemoglobin content
3.4.2: Determination of cholesterol level
3.4.3: Determination of blood sugar level
3.4.4: Determination of SGPT and SGOT(liver function)
3.4.6: Determination of blood urea nitrogen(kidney function)
3.4.7: Determination of serum creatinine level (kidney function)

Chapter 4: Results and discussion
4.1: Chemical composition
4.1.1: Vitamin A content
4.1.2: Vitamin C content
4.2: Mineral composition
4.2.1: Calcium content
4.2.2: Iron content
4.2.3: Phosphorus content
4.4: Anti-nutritional factors
4.4.1: Haemagglutinins
4.4.2: Tannins
4.4.3: Oxalates
4.4.4: Phytates
4.5: Microbiological Analysis
4.6: Proximate analysis
4.7: Effect of treatment on haemoglobin concentration of albino rats
4.8: Effect of treatment on fasting blood sugar level of albino rats
4.9: Effect of treatment on cholesterol level of albino rats
4.10: Effect of treatment on liver and kidney function tests of albino rats
4.11: Effect of treatment on the weight of internal organs of albino rats

Chapter 5: Conclusion and Recommendation
Conclusion
Recommendation

References

CHAPTER ONE

1.0                                                                         INTRODUCTION

It is axiomatic that adequate supplies of good quality food is beneficial to health. Conversely, it has long been recognized that populations suffering from malnutrition, are more susceptible to various diseases and have poor health. However, the concept of functional foods, as foods that offer some health-associated advantage over conventional foodstuffs, is a relatively recent innovation into the human nutrition market. The advantages offered by functional foods are generally related to disease avoidance and health maintenance rather than to therapeutic effects of foods.

Functional foods are defined as formulated food products that are developed with pre-determined and specific beneficial results to be accomplished by its consumption. They are defined by the Institute of Medicine in Washington, U.S.A, as those foods that encompass potentially healthful products including any modified food or ingredient that may provide a health benefit beyond the traditional nutrients it contains. Furthermore, they are health products whose primary use is for consumption as part of a usual diet and which are found in a form that is readily recognizable to the consumer as being a food product. Functional foods, however, have health benefits associated with them. In addition to providing nutritional information, functional foods would be permitted to make structure/function, risk reduction and treatment claims. Functional foods can include foods like cereals, breads, and beverages which are fortified with vitamins, herbs, or nutraceuticals.
Functional foods must offer some advantage related to disease avoidance and health maintenance. They have been implicated in alleviating the risk of a whole range of non-infectious diseases and have an impact upon immune status and viral mutation. There are now functional foods targeted at skin, gut, heart, joint, eye, and cognitive or mental health. Most functional foods are vehicles to deliver some particular bioactive components or nutricines (Adams, 1999) in the food which have a beneficial effect upon health. Many nutricines are of plant origin and currently, the vast majority of functional foods are based on molecules of plant origin (Amado et.al., 2002). These include carotenoids, flavonoids, non-digestible oligosaccharides, organic acids, phospholipids, and polyphenols. Functional foods of animal origin are not so prominent as animal products do not contain the enormous range of secondary metabolites characteristic of plants. However, foods of animal origin do have several useful nutricines such as lutein in eggs, various carotenoids and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in milk. Other valuable nutricines in animal source foods are collagen, chondroitin, taurine, selenium, butyric and lactic acids. A further advantage

of  animal   source   foods,   particularly  meat,    is   the   high   content  and   bioavailability  of

micronutrients such as iron, zinc and vitamin A from meat and vitamin B12, riboflavin and

calcium from milk.

The growing importance of functional foods can be attributed to the changing trends in consumer diets towards healthier foods, such as soy-based products, low-fat meals and vitamin-enriched energy bars. The growing proportion of ageing populations – which leads to rising health care costs, obesity problems, and an increasing awareness of healthier lifestyles – is the prime reason driving this change. Vegetables, fruits and nuts are rich in phenols, flavonoids, isoflavonoids, phytosterols, and phytic acid – essential bioactive compounds providing health benefits. The polyunsaturated fatty acids found in fish effectively regulate haemostatic factors, protect against cardiac arrhythmias, cancer and hypertension, and play a vital role in the maintenance of neural functions and the prevention of certain psychiatric disorders.

The ingredients responsible for this benefit can be naturally present or may have been added during processing. The levels of nutrients in foods can be increased beyond their natural levels to create a fortified product. Some examples of functional food ingredients and their sources are as follows: alpha – carotene found in carrots, beta – carotene found in fruits and vegetables, lutein found in green vegetables, flavones found in fruits and vegetables, sulphoraphane found in cruciferous vegetables, among others.

Therefore, production of functional foods from vegetables locally available in Nigeria will contribute to the current development in this field.....


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