EFFECTS OF INCLUSION OF OYSTER MUSHROOM (Pleurotus sajor-caju) ON THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL, SENSORY AND MICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF HAMBURGER

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ABSTRACT

This research was conducted to determine the contribution of mushroom on the physico-chemical, nutritive and sensory properties of hamburger. Four burger samples were prepared with different combinations (0%, 20%, 40% and 60%) of mushroom. The inclusion of mushroom caused a general decrease in the protein, fat, moisture, ash, mineral element, vitamin as well as soluble protein and an increase in the carbohydrate contents of hamburgers. The proximate and soluble protein contents of burgers without (0%) mushroom differed significantly (P < 0.05) from burgers with mushroom. Significant differences (P < 0.05) in the mineral element (Magnesium, iron, phosphorus, zinc, calcium and sodium) content were observed between burgers without (0%) mushroom and burgers with mushroom. The change in the potassium content of all the burger samples did not show any significant difference (P > 0.05). Burgers without mushroom differed significantly (P < 0.05) from those with mushroom in their vitamin C, A, thiamin and riboflavin content, while no significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed for niacin content among all the burger samples. The burgers with mushroom were found to still make appreciable contribution to the daily values (DV) of most of the nutrients in one serving size of 100g. The pH and water activity (aw) of the burgers ranged between 5.40 - 5.65 and 0.84-0.96 respectively. The degree of “likeness” of the organoleptic qualities and general acceptability was rated highest for burgers without mushroom, and reduced gradually with progressive inclusion of mushroom. The least-rating (“slightly dislike”) was observed in the taste of ribeye and chuck muscle burgers with more than 20% mushroom. Chuck muscle burgers were most prefered to burgers from other muscle cuts. The microbial counts (TVC, mould and coliform counts) for burgers at the end of 8 days storage under ambient condition showed that significant differences (P < 0.05) existed among muscle at the various levels of mushroom. No specific trend could be established to account for the addition of mushroom on the microbial activities of hamburger during storage. Coliform and mould counts were generally lower than TVC throughout the storage period. No physical sign of spoilage was observed at the end of eight days of storage.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page
Table of content
List of Tables
List of Figures
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1       Statement of Problems
1.2       Justification of the Research
1.3       Objectives of the Study

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       Nutritional value of mushroom
2.2       Nutritional value of meat
2.3       Chemical composition of mushroom
2.4       Chemical composition of meat
2.5       Problems of meat consumption
2.6       Mushroom health benefits
2.7       Sensory attributes of mushroom
2.8       Physical and sensory qualities of meat
2.8.1 Colour
2.8.2 Juiciness
2.8.3    Texture/toughness/tenderness
2.8.4    Flavour
2.9 Hamburger Production
2.9.1    Cut of Beef Used For Hamburger
2.9.2    Hamburger Composition and Ingredients
3.9.3    Cooking of Hamburger
2.10     Importance of hamburger

CHAPTER THREE
3.0       MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 Raw Materials and Burger Production
3.2 Analysi
3.2.1    Proximate Analysis
3.2.1.1 Moisture Content Determination
3.2.1.2 Ash Determination
3.2.1.3 Crude Protein Determination
3.2.1.4 Determination of Fat
3.2.1.5 Determination of Carbohydrates
3.2.2    Mineral Element Analysis
3.2.2.1 Determination of Iron
3.2.2.2 Determination of Magnesium
3.2.2.3 Determination of calcium
3.2.2.4 Determination of Phosphorus
3.2.2.5 Determination of Sodium and Potassium
3.2.2.6 Determination of Zinc
3.2.3    Analysis of Vitamins
3.2.3.1 Determination of Thiamin (B1)
3.2.3.2 Determination of Riboflavin
3.2.3.3 Determination of Niacin
3.2.3.4 Determination of Vitamin C
3.2.3.5  Determination of Vitamin A
3.2.4    Determination of Protein Solubility
3.2.5    Determination of pH
3.2.6    Determination of Water Activity (aw)
3.2.7    Microbial Analysis
3.2.7.1 Total Viable Count Determination
3.2.7.2 Coliform Count Determination
3.2.7.3 Mould Count Determination
3.2.8    Sensory Analysis
3.9       Experimental Design

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0       RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1       Contribution of mushroom to the proximate composition of hamburger
4.2       Contribution of mushroom to the mineral element composition of hamburger
4.3       Contribution of mushroom to the vitamin composition of hamburger
4.4       Contribution of mushroom to the physical characteristics of hamburger
4.5       Contribution of mushroom to the sensory qualities of hamburger
4.5.1    Colour attributes of hamburger with and without mushroom
4.5.2    Contribution of mushroom to the texture of hamburger
4.5.3    Contribution of mushroom to the odour/aroma of hamburger
4.5.4    Effect of mushroom inclusion on the taste of hamburger
4.5.5    Contribution of mushroom to the general acceptability of hamburger
4.6       Contribution of mushroom to the quality changes of hamburger
            during storage
4.6.1    Changes in pH of hamburger samples with and without mushroom during storage
4.6.2    Rates of change of pH of burger samples during storage
4.6.3    Rates of change of pH of burger samples during storage
4.6.4    Rates of changes of water activities of burger samples during storage
4.6.5    Changes in total viable count of burger samples during storage
4.6.6    Contribution of mushroom to the coliform count of hamburger
4.6.7    Changes in mould counts during storage

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Conclusion
5.2 Recommendation
REFERENCES
APPENDIX


CHAPTER ONE

1.0                                                                INTRODUCTION

Meat is the flesh or muscular tissue of animals (Fox and Cameron, 1977). Similarly, Forrest et al, (1975) defined meat as the flesh of animals which is suitable for use as food. Although meat eating remains at a high level, there have been distinct changes in the type of meat eaten (Varnam and Sutherland, 1995). The most striking is the rise in consumption of poultry and sea food and less red meat (Kinsman, 1994). It was further emphasized that the success of fast-food outlets means that increasing quantities of beef and, to a lesser extent, other meats are eaten as burgers and similar products. Still according to Kinsman (1994), meat is the preferred food eaten at home.

Mushroom is the fleshy, spore bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source (Moore, 2003). Mushroom is more of common application to macroscopic fungi fruiting bodies than one having precise taxonomic meaning (Chang and Miles, 2004). However, according to Bahl (2000), mushroom is a general term applied to the fruiting bodies of the fleshy fungi and as such belongs to different groups of fungi. The majority of mushrooms belong to Hymenomycetes (Basidiomycotina) while others belong to Discomycetes (Ascomycotina).


How long man has been eating mushrooms is, of course, impossible to determine, but one can speculate with reasonable assurance that such fungi have periodically been a part of his diet for many centuries (Gray, 1970). It was further stressed that until recent times in the United States, mushrooms were used primarily as a condiment to garnish steaks. With the development and expansion of the mushroom canning industry however, they appear to be gaining favour as a base for soup and as ingredient in many dishes in which they were formerly seldom used. Bano et al (1963) reported that mushrooms represent one of the world’s greatest untapped resources of nutritious and palatable foods.
Some mushrooms are edible while others are poisonous (Bahl, 2000). Edible mushrooms are distinctive in some ways. Once their distinguishing features are learned, they cannot be confused with any dangerously poisonous species.

Mushroom is being cultivated in many parts of the world presently. Commercial mushroom growing was first initiated in India (Bahl, 2000). Mushrooms have the capacity to convert nutritionally valueless substances into high protein food. It was stressed further (Bahl, 2000) that on an area basis they are a more valuable source of protein (Table 1). Besides being a food article, mushrooms are variously exploited by man (Bahl, 2000).


Table 1: Approximate annual yield of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), beef

and fish (dry protein, kg/ha).

Protein source
yield
Beef, cattle by conventional Agriculture
78
Fish, intensive pond rearing
675
Agaricus bisporus
65, 000
Source: Bahl (2000)




Hamburger: A Ground Meat Product


According to Wikipedia (2008), ground beef, beef mince or hamburger meat (in North America) or minced meat (in the rest of the English world) is a ground meat product made of beef finely chopped by a meat grinder. Burgers are usually made from ground meat or meat substitute, then reshaped to form patties and cooked and eaten (Uncyclopedia, 2008). Burgers made with beef are traditionally known as hamburgers, though due to the profusion of burger types over the last few decades are also called beef burgers. Uncyclopedia (2008) further emphasized that other meats such as venison, bison, pork, chicken, turkey, and fish can be used. The name generally changes accordingly with the.....

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