EFFECTIVENESS OF GREEN ADVERTISING ON CLEAN ENVIRONMENT IN SOUTH-SOUTH NIGERIA

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ABSTRACT
The growing consciousness on environmental sustainability has made several companies to join the campaign on green living which is the aim of green advertising. It is on this premise that this study undertakes an assessment of green advertising on clean environment in south-south Nigeria. Using the survey and content analysis methods of research, the researcher sampled 291 respondents randomly selected from three south-south states (i.e. Edo, Delta and Rivers States) and also content analyzed green advertising messages on some selected disposable products. The findings reveal among other things that individuals are conscious of having clean environment with or without green advertising messages on products or through the media. In view of this, the researcher recommends among other things that there is need for audience research to ascertain the best approach to creating impact oriented green advertising.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page
Table of Contents
List of Tables
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background of the Study
1.2       Statement of the Problem
1.3       Objectives of the Study
1.4       Research Questions
1.5       Significance of the Study
1.6       Scope of the Study
1.7       Definition of Terms
References

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0       Introduction
2.1       Overview of Green Advertising
2.2       Green Advertising and Sustainable Environment
2.3       Empirical Studies on Consumer Behaviour to Environmental Issues
2.4       Sustainable Communication and Clean Environment
2.5       Summary of Review
2.6       Theoretical Framework
References

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1       Research Design
3.2       Population of Study
3.3       Sample Size and Sampling Technique
3.4       Instrument for Data Collection
3.5       Validity and Reliability of Instrument
3.6       Method of Data Analysis
3.7       Limitation of Methodology
References

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION
4.1       Data Presentation and Analysis
4.2       Discussion on Findings
4.3       Summary of Findings
References

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1       Summary
5.2       Conclusion
5.3       Recommendations
Bibliography
Appendix

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study
The ways in which the environment and issues relating explicitly to the environment are represented in the media have been continuously evolving ever since the environmental movement came into being. The environment has been the focus of some of the most memorable media spectacles of the last 25 years (Cox, 2008: 32). In 1987 a document prepared by the World Commission on Environment and Development defined sustainable development as “meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own need.” This became known as the Brundtland Report and was another step towards widespread thinking on sustainability in everyday activity (Banerjee, Gulus & Lyer, 1995).

Arising from the Brundtland Report and Environmental Movements across the globe, environmental issues became an increasingly public concern during the last decades. Issues of global warming and climate change have come to the forefront, thus raising interest even in corporate advertising. World leaders are increasingly worried about the environment in which we live. Leaders of the world have had various meetings and summits on climate change, global warming and other related global environmental issues. This is important because man completely depends on his environment for survival and sustenance. The massive disastrous activities of man to the environment and its immense importance have raised environmental issues to the top of international agenda.


Today, as the world is concerned about sustainable environment, climate change or global warming, the need to preserve, protect and promote the environment has become paramount to us and our survival. The numerous environmental problems being experienced in the world today such as the Asian Tsunami, hurricanes, floods, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, pollutions, solid wastes and other numerous environmental problems occasioned by man are issues of great concern to nations of the world. The environment is indeed degraded in many ways. One of such ways by which the environment has been degraded and defaced is the indiscriminate disposal or dumping of solid wastes like Can drinks, bottles, food packs and many others on our streets and roads.

The use of green advertising has become imperative as it addresses the relationship between a product and the biophysical environment (Banerjee, Gulus & Lyer, 1995)

The role of mass media in contemporary society has been a topic of inquiry, which has created as many questions as it has answered. The attitude of an individual towards environmental issues in Nigeria can be traced to how effective the media have played its role in sensitizing and moulding opinions towards sustainable environment, which is what green advertising seeks to achieve. An environmental friendly media will adopt all available strategies towards achieving favourable attitudinal change on environmental issues.

As an advertising strategy that has the characteristics of being able to promote a green lifestyle and at times, enhance a corporate image of social responsibility, green advertising promotes good living through a clean and healthy environment.

Many individuals as well as organisations are yet to change their attitudes or behaviours and organisational policies in favour of sustainable development and clean environment. Many consumers manufacturing firms in Nigeria are yet to contribute towards clean environment.

However, global companies like Coca-Cola, Toyota, IBM, and manufacturer of fruit drinks like 5 Alive (Coca-Cola Nig.), Chivita (Chi Nig.), and others now focus on green advertising and sustainability of the environment. Organisations are now taking interest in green advertising and environmental management through their products and services. Environmental issues also have strategic implications for organisations. Consumer concerns about the environment have been on the increase in recent years. The deteriorating environment that has developed in recent decades had made marketing researchers to find a new line of research that has been given various labels, such as ecological marketing (Chamorro, Rubio and Miranda, 2009:233). It is the analysis of how marketing activities impact on the environment and how the environmental variable can be incorporated into the various decisions of corporate marketing. With the increasing number of “green” customers, businesses attempt to understand and respond to external pressures to improve their environmental performance (Chen, 2008:271).

The environment is central to every human activity and as such, would be used in coordinating the resources for a “synergistic approach to management of the environment” (Nwabueze, 2007:45). There have been many approaches towards clean environment. One of such approaches is the adoption and application of advertising into environmental management or studies. Advertising is exciting, dynamic and pervasive in nature.

The Advertising Practitioners Council of Nigeria (APCON) defines advertising as the non-personal communication of information, usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature about products or ideas by identified sponsors through various media (APCON, cited in Benson-Eluma, 2004:3). This implies that advertising is a persuasive communication that tries to persuade the target audience to respond positively to the goods or service. As part of its functions, advertising is to educate and inform. Nwabueze (2007:86) believes that advertising can be used as part of its functions to educate and inform the public on environmental management or clean environment. This can be done in advertisements and in the packaging of products and services.
By application, green advertising as Nwabueze (2007:86) sees it, explores how advertising principles and practices are employed by organisations on the environment with the aim of ensuring an environmentally sustainable achievement of marketing objectives. Green advertising in this context is a specific type of advertising that is centred on the promotion of factors having to do with the environment. Oftentimes, the companies that use green advertising also use very environmentally friendly operations and products packaging as well. This concept has enabled the re-marketing and packaging of existing products which already or not adhere to environmental guidelines (Banerjee, Gulus & Lyer, 1995)......

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