EFFECTIVENESS OF FRCN “EVERYWOMAN” PROGRAMME IN PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY IN SOUTH EAST NIGERIA

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ABSTRACT

This study investigated the effectiveness of FRCN ‘everywoman’ in promoting gender equality. The objectives of the programme were to find out the level of audience exposure to the programme; find out audience awareness of the programme, the general perception of the programme by the audience and the extent to which the FRCN ‘everywoman’ programme has been effective in promoting gender equality among residents of South East Nigeria. Survey research method was adopted for the study while questionnaire was the instrument of data collection. The reliability of the instrument was determined through a test retest approach and this yielded correlation coefficient of 0.82 which was considered high. The sample size for the study was 405 selected through a multi-stage sampling technique. The sample was drawn from three states in South East Nigeria namely, Anambra, Imo and Enugu. The result of this study revealed that 44.7% of the respondents reported that they are exposed to the programme always. Audience awareness of ‘everywoman’ programme was also found to be moderate (57.7%). The result of this study also revealed that 90% of the respondents are of the opinion that gender equality does not concern only women; men should also be interested in issues on gender equality and contribute in promoting gender equality. The result of the study further revealed that audience perceive ‘everywoman’ programme as a viable effort to promote gender equality, content is capable of achieving its objectives, the timing of the programme is appropriate but duration was found to be too short. Finally, result showed that ‘everywoman’ programme is effective in promoting gender equality to a moderate extent. The researcher recommends, among others, that the FRCN should consider the possibi lity of improving on the duration of the programme.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page
Table of Contents
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Objectives
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Significance of the Study
1.6 Scope of the Study
1.7 Definition of Terms
Reference

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Focus of Review
2.2Conceptual Review
2.3 Review of Empirical Studies
2.4 Theoretical Framework
References

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1  Research Design
3.2 Population of the Study
3.3 Sample Size
3.4 Sampling Technique
3.5 Research Instruments
3.6 Method of Administration of Instruments
3.7 Validity and Reliability of the Instruments
3.8  Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Data presentation and Analysis
4.2 Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary
5.2Conclusion
5.3 Recommendations
Bibliography

Appendix


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study
The quest for gender equality has since assumed a global dimension. Gender balance is arguably one of the most controversial issues in public domain. The equal treatment of people irrespective of gender has for long been an issue of concern. It is the thinking of many, especially human rights activists, that people should be treated equally. Gender sensitivity or feminism movement entails promoting the rights of people, especially those that are perceived to be weak (Nwabuzor & Gever 2015, p.5). It is a general belief that women are not given their pride of place in the society. Johnson (2014, p.2) paints a vivid picture of the discrimination against women thus;

Women, who form half of the world's population, work three-fourths of the world's working hours; receive one-tenth of the world's salary; own one percent of the world's land; form two-thirds of illiterate adults; and together with their dependent children form three-fourths of the world's starving people. To make a bleak picture worse, women are subject to domestic violence at home and are raped, prostituted, trafficked into sexual slavery and murdered by men to a degree that is not reciprocal. Regarding education, employment and other social goods, men have advantages simply by being born male...

This partly informs the popularity gained by the Beijing Declaration. The

declaration entitled, ‘Beijing Declaration and platform for action’ was a product of an

eleven day conference (4-15 September, 1995) in which recommendations made to the

Generally Assembly of the United Nations at its fiftieth session seeks to promote

gender equality. The main thrust of the declaration was to eliminate all forms of

discriminations against women on account of their sex. The media were equally called

to join in the campaign which objective was to correct perceived injustices against women. Item 236 of the declaration states:

The continued projection of negative and degrading images of women in media communications - electronic, print, visual and audio - must be changed. Print and electronic media in most countries do not provide a balanced picture

of women’s diverse lives and contributions to society in a changing world. In addition, violent and degrading or pornographic media products are

also negatively affecting women and their participation in society. Programming that reinforces women’s traditional roles can be equally limiting. The world-wide trend towards consumerism has created a climate in which advertisements and commercial messages often portray women primarily as consumers and target girls and women of all ages inappropriately.



These results run similarly with the views of some scholars, (Agboh 2012,

Angell 202, Okagbue 2005 Ukuma 2012.) It is the thinking of many scholars that

women have not been given their pride of place. Agboh for example writes, “The

place of a woman appears to be defined by the society as only fit for the kitchen, born

and raised with a sole objective to be a man’s property…” (p. 105). By this comment,

Agboh appears not to be comfortable with the common notion that a woman’s place is

better defined as a domestic helper. Ukuma corroboratively posits that ‘Gender

relations in Nigeria are encapsulated in a plethora of unequal patterns of income,

distribution, ownership and control of available resources (p, 197).’ This further gives

an insight to the outcry demonstrated by scholars in their bid to attain gender equality,

especially in less developed countries comically called developing countries.


The media were perceived by the declaration as promoting discrimination against

women, thus going contrary to article 2 of the United Nations Convention on the

Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) noted ‘States

parties condemn discrimination against women in all forms, agree to pursue by

appropriate means and without delay a policy of eliminating discrimination’ The

Nigerian Broadcasting Code (2010, p. 34) equally encourages broadcast media to portray women in good light as it writes; ‘Womanhood shall be presented with respect and dignity.’ Broadcasting is an influential media that exerts it powerful effects on it audience (Akpan 2006, p.22). Broadcast media programmes aimed at promoting gender equality are thus, designed to discourage discrimination on the basis of gender. What this means is that the broadcast media should not be biased in this pursuit.

The European Institute for Gender Equality (2007 para 5) corroboratively notes that broadcast programmes should ensure that the portrayal, reporting and representation of women and men respect their dignity. Away from the statutory obligation is the theoretical proposition on social responsibility of the broadcast media to the society in addition to its agenda setting power (Asemah 2011,p.57). The broadcast media thus theoretically, have a social responsibility to set agenda on gender equality to the Nigerian public.
It is perhaps, in line with these statutory and theoretical expectations that the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN) has introduced a network programme known as ‘Everywoman’ which comes up every Sunday from 7pm to 7.30pm. The programme was introduced by the then Director of Programmes Maria Ode in 2006 to promote issues and policies on gender equality. Since then, it has been produced by Msurshima Kighr, Josephine Adekola, Chinomnso Okafor, Amaka Okonkwo and is now being produced by Claudia Ifode and Christy Okoli. Through the programme, efforts are made to positively influence the Nigerian public towards gender equality. For example, the March 8th 2015 edition of the programme was entitled, ‘20th Beijing Declaration platform for action’ During that edition of the programme, the producer Claudia Ifode in an obvious words of encouragement for equality remarked....


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