EFFECT OF SMOKING AND OVEN-DRYING ON SHELF STABILITY AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF ATLANTIC MACKEREL FISH FILLETS (SCOMBOROMORUS SCOMBRUS)

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ABSTRACT

The work was carried out to determine the effectiveness of smoking and oven drying on the shelf stability and sensory characteristics of Atlantic mackerel fish fillets during storage. In the study, mackerel fish was eviscerated and cut into fillets, weighed and measured, cleaned and dipped in 75% saturated brine for 1 minute. It was smoked at a temperature of 60-70oC for 4hours. Products were then divided into four (4) batches after smoking and cooling. One batch was kept at room temperature as control while the remaining 3 batches were oven dried at 70-80oC for 1hour, 2hours and 3hours respectively. The smoked and dried fish fillets were later stored at room temperature including the control (sample A) for 21days and were analyzed for physical, chemical, microbial and sensory qualities. Result indicated that moisture content and water activity of the products decreased as storage period increased. The thiobartituric acid (TBA) value and peroxide value increased during storage and decreased with drying time. It was noticed that the mould count increased with storage period but decreased with drying time and the same was also applicable to the total viable count. The sensory evaluation studies showed a significant difference (p<0 .05="" 3hours="" a="" and="" appearance="" at="" colours.="" days="" drying="" evaluation="" flavour="" for="" gave="" general="" in="" later="" of="" oven="" preference="" respect="" result="" saltiness="" sample.="" samples="" sensory="" span="" storage="" tastes="" the="" within="">


Based on the result obtained from the treatments a drying period of three (3) hours was recommended. This was because this treatment (sample D) gave a product with the best general acceptability and also gave a product of low moisture content, low water activity and was more shelf stable.


TABLE OF CONTENT

Title
Abstract
Table of Content
List of Tables
List of Figures

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1       Importance of Fish and Fish Products
1.2       Fish in Human Diet
1.3       Fish in Industry and Commerce
1.4       Fish Production in Nigeria
1.5       Importance of Smoke Curing of Fish
1.6       Merits of Smoking Fish
1.7       Smoking and Drying and its effect
1.8       Aims and Objectives

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       Fish Handling, Transportation and Distribution in Nigeria
2.2       Methods of Processing and Preservation of Fish
2.3       Importance of Smoke Curing
2.4       Effect of Smoking on Quality Characteristic of Fish
2.5       Types of Smoking
2.6       Effect of Smoking on Chemical Component of Fish
2.7       Rancidity Development in Smoked Fish
2.8       Smoking  and Drying of Fish
2.9       Advantages of Smoking of Fish Fillet

CHAPTER THREE:  MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1       Sources of Raw Material
3.2       Preparation of Fish for smoking
3.3       Fish Smoking
3.4       Drying of smoked fish fillets
3.5       Determination of physico-chemical changes (properties) in smoked and dried fish fillets
3.6       Determination of moisture content
3.7       Determination of water activity (aw)
3.8       Determination of Crude Protein
3.9       Determination of fat content
3.10     Determination of Ash content
3.11     Thiobarbituric acid value determination
3.12     Peroxide value determination
3.13     Determination of total viable count
3.14     Mould count Determination
3.15     Sensory evaluation

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT AND DISCUSSION
4.1       Dimensions of the Fresh Fish
4.2       Temperature and relative humidity of smoked and dried fish fillets Storage Environment
4.3       Proximate composition of  fish
4.4       Moisture content of smoked and dried fish fillets during storage
4.5       Effect  of storage on the water activities of   smoked and dried fish fillets
4.6       Effect of storage on the thiobarbituric (TBA) value of the
            smoked  and dried fish fillets
4.7       Effect of storage on the peroxide value of smoked and dried  fish fillet
4.8       Effect of storage on total viable count (TVC) (cfu/g)            of smoked and dried fish fillet
4.9       Effect of storage on mould count (cfu/g)  of smoked and dried fish fillets
4.10     Sensory characteristics of smoked and dried fish fillet

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1       Conclusion
5.2       Recommendation
            References
            APPENDICES

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1        Importance of fish and fish product

Fish is an aquatic organism with adaptive physical features, which enable it to live conveniently in water. These physical features are mouth, operculum (gill cover) fins, eyes, lateral lines, scales, nostrils and barbell, among others.. Fish is a major source of food for humans, providing a significant portion of the protein (which is essential for healthy human growth), fats and fat-soluble vitamins intake in the diets of a large proportion of the people, particularly so in the developing countries.

Fish is also used as a source of valuable medicinal, feeding and technical products. Fish is a cheap sources of animal protein and fat with little or no religious rejection. This gives it an advantage over pork, chicken or other meat (Johnson and Peterson, 1974). That such use can be made of fish is explained by the various historical and chemical composition of its different parts. The size, chemical composition and food value of fish depends on their species, age, sex physiological state, and on the conditions in which they live. Since fish is a highly perishable commodity, proper processing and storage are very important factors to maintain in order to extend its shelf life (Merindol, 1967).


1.2        Fish in Human Diet

In the world as a whole, fish represents a major source of animal protein, fat, mineral and vitamin (Johnson and Peterson, 1974). Marine fish and shell fish are by far the richest source of iodine in human diet (Ashwood, 1985). The annual fish landings for 1989 were 99.5 million tones of which 62.2 millions tonnes were caught for human food with remaining 37.3 million tonnes being reduced to fish meal. In terms of total world supplies fish contributes about 6% of all proteins and 18.1% of animal proteins. (Johnson and Peterson, 1974). These figures however, conceal a wide variation in the importance of fish in the diet as found in many developing countries where it is a major and sometimes the sole source of animal protein. (Greiger and Borgstrom, 1962).

1.3        Fish in Industry and Commerce

Some of the uses of fish and fish products include the manufacture of Nitrogenous fertilizers from fish and fish scrabs, the extraction of fish liver oils as one of the sources of vitamin. A and D, control of mosquito borne disease, a potential tool.....


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