EFFECT OF DRAMA METHOD ON STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMEMENT AND INTEREST IN CHRISTIAN RELIGIOUS KNOWLEDGE (CRK) IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS

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ABSTRACT

This study investigated the effect of drama method on students’ academic achievement and interest in Christian Religious Knowledge (CRK) in senior secondary schools in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu state. Five research questions and five hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted the quasi-experimental research design. The population of the study was all the senior secondary two (SS11) students that were offering CRK in public co-educational secondary schools in Nsukka Local Government Area with an estimated number of 1,328 students. A sample of 115 students from two schools that were randomly selected from public co-educational secondary schools in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State participated in the study. The instruments for data collection were Christian Religious Knowledge Achievement Test (CRKAT) and Christian Religious Knowledge Interest Inventory (CRKII). The instruments were validated by experts. The instruments were trial tested to determine the internal consistencies of the instruments. Cronbach’s Alpha was used to calculate the reliability index coefficient of the CRKII and Kuder Richardson Formula 20 (KR20) was used to calculate the reliability index coefficient of the CRKAT respectively. The reliability index coefficient of the CRKII was 0.83 while the overall reliability index coefficient of CRKAT (40 items) was 0.66. Mean scores and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while the Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The results of the study revealed that students taught with drama method of teaching performed better than those taught with lecture method. The results of the findings further showed that the students taught CRK with drama method developed higher interest in the subject than those students taught with lecture method. The study has educational implications to students, teachers, curriculum planners, textbook writers and school administrators. The study recommended that teachers should embrace the use of drama method of teaching in the instructional delivery among others. Suggestions for further studies were stated and limitations of the study were highlighted.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page
Table of contents
List of Tables
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE: Introduction
Background of the Study
Statement of the Problem
Purpose of the Study
Significance of the Study
Scope of the Study
Research Questions
Research Hypotheses

CHAPTER TWO: Review of Related Literature
Conceptual Framework
Concept of Christian Religious Knowledge
Concept of Achievement
Concept of Interest
Concept of Drama
Concept of Gender
Theoretical Framework
•           Social Learning Theory by Albert Bandura
•           Constructivist Learning Theory by Giambattista Vico
Review of Empirical Studies
Related studies on Drama Method and Achievement
Related studies on Interest and Achievement
Related studies on Gender and Achievement
Summary of Literature Review

CHAPTER THREE: Research Method
Design of the Study
Area of the Study
Population of the Study
Sample and Sampling Techniques
Instruments for Data Collection
Validation of the Instruments
Reliability of the Instruments
Experimental Procedures
Control of Extraneous Variable
Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS
Summary of Major Findings

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION, IMPLICATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS, AND SUMMARY
Discussion of Findings
Conclusion
Educational Implications of the Study
Recommendations
Limitations of the Study
Suggestions for Further Study
Summary of the Study
REFERENCES
APPENDICES

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study
Christian Religious Knowledge (CRK) is one of the subjects approved by the National Policy on Education (2004) to be taught and studied in the secondary schools in Nigeria. Its subject matter is similar to that of Christian Religious Knowledge that is offered in primary schools in Nigeria. The major aim of teaching Christian Religious Knowledge is to encourage students to participate in those activities, which foster personal discipline, character training and role-playing. CRK instills in the youths the spirit of tolerance, reconciliation, peaceful co-existence and non-violence. It provides opportunities for the Nigerian youth to learn more about God and thereby develop their faith in God. According to Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) (2010, p.ii), CRK “helps to develop in the youths moral values, such as humility, respect, love, kindness, justice, spirit of forgiveness, obedience, discipline, hard work and devotion to duty, selfless service within the community”. It also helps students to apply the teachings and examples of Jesus Christ in their daily lives and to develop and foster in the students Christian attitude and values such as respect for life and selfless service to God and humanity. As stipulated by Ayogu (2008), the teaching of CRK helps the learners to train in the development of a deep sense of responsibility, respect for authorities and sensitizes people to respect the rights and privileges of others.


Today in Nigeria, it is a common knowledge that our society has records of high rate of immorality and social vices such as cultism, killing, kidnapping, stealing, prostitution, and abortion to mention but a few. Students disobey their parents and teachers alike. These reflect to improper moral training; hence children grow up to become criminals in the society. No wonder Omalle (2006) observed that to educate men without Religion is to make them clever devils. CRK therefore becomes a worthwhile school subject because of the values it has for the society. Today, our society is confronted with conflicts of all sorts. Perhaps, these conflicts could be eradicated if CRK as a secondary school subject is taught with good methods which will attract students’ interest and enhance their achievement in the subject.

Teaching methods comprise the principles and means used for instruction in the classroom (Uwameiye & Ojikutu, 2008). Commonly used teaching methods may include demonstration, drama, recitation, memorization, lecture method or combination of these teaching methods. Teaching methods as noted by Bolunde (2005) can affect the learners’ achievement and interest positively or negatively. Teaching methods are great weapons that the teachers should employ in their profession. Richards and Rodgers (2001) observed that if teaching is successfully carried out, learning will occur and successful teaching axiomatically implies good method application. The choice of the teaching method or methods to be used depends largely on the information or skills that are being taught. The choice of teaching methods may also be influenced by the aptitude, interest and enthusiasm of the students. As noted by the (NERDC, 2010) in order to enhance the implementation of the Christian Religious Knowledge, the following teaching methods are expected to be used by teachers --- the use of stories, illustrations, role play, drama, video and audio aids to mention but a few.

Teaching should be learner centered. This involves discussion, question and answer sessions.

All these are teaching methods that make learning interesting, informative and life changing.

However, it is disheartening to notice that in our secondary schools today, CRK teachers teach the students mostly with conventional method (lecture method). Ajah and Asadu (2002) observed that CRK teachers especially those in public secondary schools teach the students mostly with lecture method. As postulated by Wagner (2010), lecture method is a method that is most often found in the universities and other tertiary institutions. Lecture method is based on the transmissive teaching model. In lecture method, it is believed that knowledge is an object that can be transferred from the teacher to the learner. As noted by Ajah and Asadu (2002), lecture method of teaching yields less deep knowledge when compared to other teaching methods such as project based teaching method and other activity based methods of teaching. As opined by Offorma (2004), lecture method makes the learners to aim at passing examination and not at the transfer of learning because they learn by rote and memorization. Asogwa and Echemazu (2011, p.23) observed that “an important subject as Christian Religious Knowledge is taught with the traditional method of talk and chalk.” In addition, lecture method reduces students’ interest in the subject and thereby makes the students’ achievement very low and poor. As stated by Ayogu (2008), lecture method, conventional as it is, also affects the number of students that enroll in CRK examinations in each year. Ayogu (2008) is of the opinion that lecture method makes the teacher the only active person in the class while the students are complete observers throughout the lesson. As noted by Aja and Asadu (2002), lecture method encourages laziness, rote and memorization which kill students’ interest and attitudes towards CRK. It is observed that at the secondary school level, no strong emphasis is placed by teachers on the use of teaching methods. The CRK teachers still regard the way they were taught in their own days as the best way to teach.

Any systematic and effective lesson delivery as noted by Ede and Odo (2006) must sustain students’ interest and encourage their active participation. However, Ajah and Asadu (2002) have it that this lecture method used presently in most public schools, presents the CRK content in such an abstract manner that most students seem to achieve little or nothing in teaching-learning processes. This could be because lecture method makes lessons uninteresting and dull. Lecture method does not demand many activities from the students and thereby makes the students passive in the class. This method which is not learner centred consistently used without variation, is said to be the primary causes of students’ lack of.....

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