DEMOGRAPHIC CORRELATES OF RECREATIONAL PURSUITS AMONG STUDENTS OF FEDERAL COLLEGES OF EDUCATION IN NORTH CENTRAL ZONE OF NIGERIA

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ABSTRACT


This study examined the demographic correlates of recreational pursuits among the students of Federal Colleges of Education in North Central Zone of Nigeria to establish the relationship and predictive values of these correlates. To achieve the purpose of the study, five research questions and six hypotheses were posed to guide the study. The research questions and hypotheses sought to identify the relationship and the significance of the relationship between the five independent variables of age, gender, year of study, religious affiliation, marital status and students’ recreational pursuits. Qualitative data were collected using a researcher made questionnaire with fourteen items. The questionnaire was used collected data on the students demographic variables and their recreational pursuits. The questionnaire were distributed to 2130 students drawn from the area of the study. The collected data were analysed using frequencies, mean, linear and multiple regression. The result showed that there was no significant relationship between the independent (predictor) variable of year of study and students’ recreational pursuits (dependent variable) at 05 level of significance. There was however statistically significant relationship between age gender, religious affiliation, marital status and students’ recreational pursuits at.05 level of significance. It is recommended among other things that adequate opportunities for recreational pursuit should be incorporated into the academic programme of the colleges.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title Page
Abstract
Table of Contents

CHAPTER ONE: Introduction
Background to the Study
Statement of the Problem
Purpose of the Study
Research Questions
Hypotheses
Significance of the Study
Scope of the Study

CHAPTER TWO: Review of Related Literature
Conceptual Framework
Theoretical Framework
Demographic Factors Influencing Recreational Pursuits
Empirical Studies on Demographic Correlates of Recreational Pursuits
Summary of Review of Related Literature

CHAPTER THREE: Research Methods
Research Design
Population of the Study
Sample and Sampling Techniques
Instrument for Data Collection
Validity of Instrument
Reliability of Instrument
Method of Data Collection
Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: Result and Discussion
Research Question 1-5
Hypotheses 1-6
Summary of Major Findings
Discussion

CHAPTER FIVE: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
Summary
Conclusion
Implications of the Study
Recommendations
Limitations of the Study
Suggestion for Further Research
References
Appendices

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

Background of the Study
In every culture, there are hours when people are not required to engage in paid work, household chores or school work. Jones, Kennaugh and Ross (1996) revealed that the hours available to individual when the disciplines of work, sleep and other basic necessities have been met are referred to as leisure time. Opadiji (2002) stated that people need to make time for the kind of activity that will help them to recreate their mind and body. Uti and Ojeme (2003) maintained that everyone must have time for work and time for leisure. The amount of leisure available to people has now increased through the invention of many modern time saving devices (Ward, Higson & Campbell 1994). It is during the leisure hours according to Ehanmo (1995) that people especially students engage in wholesome activities of interest which their academic engagement denies them of. In other words, the students have complete choice of what to do during their leisure time, recreation therefore has become a veritable life pursuits that can help the students to spend their time and energy in most satisfying and refreshing manner.
Nwankwo (1988) viewed recreation as socially acceptable activities voluntarily engaged in during one’s free or leisure time which is worthwhile and gives satisfaction. Okafor (1988) added that recreation is a playful and relaxing activity outside one’s professional area of specialization. He revealed further that recreation is aimed at occupying the participant in activities and manners different from his occupational duties. Recreation according to Umeakuka (2002) is a wide range of activities acceptable to the society in which people voluntarily engage during their leisure time because of the satisfaction they receive from doing it. Those activities are also referred to as their pursuits.
A pursuit therefore is referred to as any activity which one gives his time (Walkins and Watkins 1990). Geddas and Grosset (2005) viewed pursuits as pastime activities. From the foregoing submission, recreational pursuits could be described as activities one is involved in during recreation. Opadiji (2002) disclosed that there are various forms of recreational activities which constitute students’ recreational pursuits. The common recreational activities according to Uti and Ojeme (2003) include gardening, camp fire, fishing, dancing, listening to music, canoeing, hiking, craft and art work, visiting, swimming, field trip and picnics. In a similar vein, Kpum and Egwu (2006) held that in order to help students develop their talents, abilities and potentialities to the fullest, schools should establish and encourage the students to enroll in such recreational activities like chess, habitat, philatelia, speech and debating, photography, music, literacy, jet club and brain cracker among others.
Siedentop (1998) revealed the values inherent in recreational pursuits. He contended that recreation enables college students to achieve physical grace psychological ease and personal integrity. Ottong and Charles (2000) reiterated that recreation provides the major channel of youth development through civic education, leadership training, character building and community service. Quality recreation and general physical activities have beneficial effects on students’ psychological well being, self-esteem, over weight and obesity (Cavil, Biddle and Sallis 2001). Mclaughlin (2002) stated that adolescent students who participate regularly in community based recreational programme experience better academic and social outcome including higher grade and career aspiration. Recreational pursuits according to Vansteenkistle, Simons and Kens (2004) are associated with increased effort in performance and persistence in doing things which contribute to successful accomplishment of school work. Oke (2006) acknowledged the buffering effects and opportunities for social support inherent in recreation. He pointed out that recreational pursuits provide opportunities for students to discuss matters that affect their common interests and life situations.
Despite the fact that active recreational lifestyle is associated with positive health and social benefit, there exists some factors that are known to have great influence on the effective participation of students in recreational pursuits. Demographic variables have been identified as common variables that influence the students’ effective participation in recreational pursuits. More so, the influence has been more particularly pronounced among the students of Federal College of Education in North Central Zone of Nigeria.

Sills (1972) stated that demography is concerned with the population structure consisting of the age, sex, marital composition and other factors. Goetz (2005) contended that demography refers to the statistical study of human population especially with reference to the size and density, distribution and vital statistics of birth, marriage, death and diseases. Welk (1999) held that recreation is a multi-factoral behaviour that is influenced by psychological, social, environmental and demographic variables. This study is meant to ascertain the demographic factors influencing the students’ recreational pursuits. Therefore demography as applied to this study has to do with the social and population characteristics (dynamics) of the students which correlate with their recreational pursuits. Specifically the study will investigate the demographic variables (factors) of age, gender, religious affiliation, year of study and marital status of the students and their influence on recreational pursuits.
London Social Survey Division (1986) pointed out that there is a general decline in active recreational pursuits with increasing age. The survey further submitted that some home based activities such as gardening, art, and craftwork among others are most popular among the middle aged. Torkildson (1992)....


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