AVAILABILITY AND UTILIZATION OF RESOURCES FOR EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF SEXUALITY AND HIV/AIDS EDUCATION CONTENTS OF SOCIAL STUDIES CURRICULUM IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NSUKKA EDUCATION ZONE, ENUGU STATE, NIGERIA

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ABSTRACT

This study assessed the extent of availability and utilization of resources for effective implementation of Sexuality and HIV/AIDS Education contents of Junior Secondary School Social Studies curriculum in Nsukka Education Zone, Enugu State. The study adopted descriptive survey design. Five research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. The population of the study consisted of 180 Social studies teachers, from fifty nine (59) Junior Secondary Schools in Nsukka Education Zone of Enugu State. A purposive and simple random sampling technique was used to select the entire teachers as the sample of the study. The instruments used for data collection were Checklist, Observational Schedule and Questionnaire. The instruments were validated by relevant experts in the field and their reliability co -efficients were ascertained. Data collected were analyzed using Percentages, mean and standard deviation while t-test of independent sample was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study revealed among other things that radio, newspaper, posters, films and videos of HIV/AIDS patients, magazines and social studies textbooks are the instructional materials needed for effective implementation of Sexuality and HIV/AIDS Education contents of Social curriculum. It was also shown that human resources (in terms of quality of Social studies teachers) that are teaching sexuality and HIV/AIDS contents in junior secondary schools are available (NCE, 69 (38.5%), B.ED, 61 (38.8%), M.ED, 8 (4.4%)). Significantly, it was equally shown that most of the needed instructional materials for teaching Sexuality and HIV/AIDS contents of Junior Secondary School Social studies were not available. Indeed, only charts, Pictorials, Newspapers and Textbooks were identified as the readily available instructional materials for the effective implementation of Sexuality and HIV/AIDS Education contents of Social curriculum. The findings also revealed that teachers utilized to a very high extent available instructional materials such as charts, pictorials, newspapers, textbooks and photograph as well as HIV/AIDS patients in the implementation of Sexuality and HIV/AIDS Education contents of junior secondary school Social Studies curriculum. However, it was indicated that the dominant method of teaching Sexuality and HIV/AIDS Education contents of Social Studies curriculum at junior secondary schools in Nsukka Education zone is lecture method. The findings of the study also revealed that there is no significant difference in the mean rating of teachers with B.ED and NCE qualifications on the extent of utilization of recommended instructional methods for effective implementation of Sexuality and HIV/AIDS Education contents of Social curriculum. Similarly, it has also shown that there is no significant difference in the mean rating of teachers with B.ED and NCE qualification on the extent of utilization of recommended instructional materials for effective implementation of Sexuality and HIV/AIDS Education contents of Social Studies curriculum. Based on these findings, it was recommended among other things that there is urgent need to ensure that required resources are made available and utilized by the teachers for effective implementation of Sexuality and HIV/AIDS Education contents of Social Studies curriculum.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page
Abstract
Table of Contents
List of Tables

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study
Statement of the Problems
Purpose of the Study
Significance of the Study
Scope of the Study
Research Questions
Hypotheses

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Conceptual Framework
Concept of Resources
Concept of Sexuality Education
Concept of HIV/AIDS
Concept of Curriculum
Concept of Curriculum Implementation
Concept, Nature, Scope and Objectives of Social Studies
Scope of Social Studies at Junior Secondary School Level in Nigeria
Objectives/Goals of Social Studies
Theoretical Framework
Theory of Constructivism (Jean Piaget, 1896-1980)
Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1977)
Review of Empirical Studies
Quality of Human Resources and Implementation of Sexuality and HIV/AIDS Education Content Social Studies Curriculum
Instructional Materials and Implementation of Sexuality and HIV/AIDS Education Contents Social Studies Curriculum
Instructional Methods and Implementation of Sexuality and HIV/AIDS Education content of Upper Basic Social Studies Curriculum
Summary of Literature Review

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD
Design of the Study
Area of the Study
Population of the Study
Sample and Sampling Techniques
Instrument for Data Collection
Validation of the Instrument
Reliability of the Instrument
Method of Data Collection
Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND RESULTS

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION, SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Discussion of the Findings
Summary of the Study
Conclusion
Educational Implication of the Study
Limitation of the Study
Recommendations
Suggestion for Further Studies
REFERENCES

APPENDICES

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study
It is widely accepted that no enterprise be it social, economic, political, and educational can achieve expected outcomes without resources. Resource refers to anything that can be used for production or creation, which yields an output. Holder and Miston cited in Madumere-Obike and Afangideh (2012) opines that resources in general include things in the environment that can be harnessed to enhance the achievement of institutional goals e.g. facilities, materials, finance, human being, among others. To Ugwu (2000), resources in education are those things that are used to achieve the purposes or objectives of teaching and learning which may include human beings, television, ICT facilities, textbooks, magazines, among others. Resources are characterized by utility, limited availability, and potential for depletion or consumption (Miller & Spoolman, 2011). These characteristics show that resources are important factors used for the attainment of institutional objectives. Operationally, a resource refers to human beings, instructional materials, and instructional methods which provide information for teachers and students on instructional basis.


Human resources refer to people who organize, manage, coordinate and implement organizational decision and policies at any point in time (William, 2013). Human resources are therefore seen as policy makers or policy implementers who work collectively to achieve organizational goals and objectives. In the context of this study, human resources refer to teachers who are the agents of curriculum implementation. Without human efforts, no organization (education inclusive) can achieve its goals. This is because human resources utilize materials and facilities to achieve institutional goals (Eze & Obeta, 2006).
Material resources or facilities on the other hand are any quantifiable material/facilities used to complete a task. These include equipments, buildings, machines, textbooks, pen and pencils, furniture, as well as internet facilities which are utilized by human beings in organizational set up to achieve stipulated goals and objectives (Miller and Spoolman, 2011). In the field of education, material resources consist of the major tools the learner employs in transmitting knowledge such as printed materials which could be textbooks, pictures, photographs which are commercially made) and non-texts which includes models, real objects, video, films and audio aids (Adekunle, 2008). Nwaubani and Ezegbe (2008) equally added that facilities in the learning environment such as furniture, electricity, workshops, equipment, are also part of material resources. In the context of this study, material resources refers to any tools or equipments used by teachers and students in the process of teaching and learning of Sexuality and HIV/AIDS contents of Social Studies in junior secondary school levels.

Intangible resources are those assets that have no physical existence and are based mainly on information and knowledge (Aurello & Baragas, 2011). Factors like institution image, teacher qualification, and technological knowhow, and method of teaching are classified as intangible resources. Intangible resources are characterized by invisibility and thus it is difficult to quantify like material and human resources. In the context of this study, intangible resources refer to methods of teaching utilized by teachers for effective implementation of Sexuality and HIV/AIDS contents of Social Studies curriculum.
The methods of teaching in Social Studies include inquiry method, discussion, role-play, simulation, games/drama and field trip among others. Inquiry method is an approach to learning in which the learner is the active agent in discovering concepts, generalizations and idea. Field trip is any learning activity that is carried out by the students as a group outside the classroom, under the guidance of the teacher. Discussion involves allowing the individual students to participate in the process of teaching while demonstration method is an activity in which sight is a vehicle of communication. It implies that what is demonstrated must be seen by students. Role-play method involves getting students to act a problem or structured situation for the purpose of teaching a particular skill, concept or attitude; while Drama and Simulation method are the act of using the imagination to become someone or something other than yourself or the human process whereby imaginative thought becomes action (Agwu, 2005). The teachers’ ingenuity in adapting and maximizing the utilization of these methods as well as the scarce and often insufficient instructional materials can have tremendous impact in the successful implementation of Sexuality and HIV/AIDS content of Social Studies curriculum.

Curriculum is defined as course of studies which students must fulfill in order to pass a certain level of education. It can be defined as a set of opportunities to engage the learner in or outside the school under the guidance and direction of the school. Hass in Offorma (2002) described curriculum as:

“all of the experiences that individual learners have in a program of education whose purpose is to achieve broad goals and related specific objectives, which is planned in terms of a framework of theory and research or past and present professional practice”.( P. 81)

Similarly, Finch and Crunkilton (2004) defined curriculum as the sum of the learning activities that students engage in under the auspices or direction of the school. Curriculum is systematically planned and after planning comes the implementation of the curriculum in schools. Curriculum implementation is a process of teaching the students what is contained in....

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