AN EVALUATION OF THE USE OF INTERACTIVE RADIO INSTRUCTION STRATEGY IN EDUCATING NOMADIC CHILDREN IN NORTHERN NIGERIA

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ABSTRACT


It is unarguably a fact that the provision of basic education for all citizens, especially children, remains a sacred responsibility of governments the world over. In Africa for instance, it is estimated that about 67.16 million school age children are not in school because of their inability to access it. In Nigeria, of the 30 million school-aged children, 10 million are currently not enrolled in school; of those currently in primary school, less than one third will enrol in junior secondary, with even fewer reaching senior secondary school. Of this population, nomadic children account for over 10 percent. The implication of this is that over 90 percent of nomadic school-age children were not in school before 2009. This was because of their nomadic nature and the neglect of successive governments. After the establishment of National Commission of Nomadic Education in 1989, the Commission came up with a number of strategies to educate the nomads who were before now excluded from the normal school system because they could not fit in. Subsequently, in 2009, the National Commission for Nomadic Education (NCNE) developed the Interactive Radio Instruction (IRI) strategy to educate nomadic children who could not cope in the conventional school system. Four years after the strategy was developed and used in six states, how far has it gone in raising the knowledge level of nomadic children in Nigeria? Using triangulation mixed method design, 397 nomadic pupils were studied in 15 nomadic primary schools in Kaduna, Adamawa and Plateau states in northern Nigeria. The qualitative and quantitative data generated using questionnaire, interview and observation revealed that: nomadic children participate actively in the IRI programme and as such their knowledge level has increased tremendously. However, the study revealed that the use of English in IRI programme, the religion of the nomads and the quest to attend to their flock are the major problems of the programme. Based on these findings, it was recommended among other things that the producers of IRI programme should play down on their excessive use of grammar in the programme to make it easier for the pupils to understand. Government should also provide more funding to enable the Commission to recruit more staff and develop grazing reserves to reduce constant movements of these nomads.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page
Table of Content
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background of the Study
1.2       Statement of the Research Problem
1.3       Objectives of the Study
1.4       Research Questions
1.6       Significance of the Study
1.7       Scope and Limitations of the Study
1.8       Definition of Terms
            References

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       Focus of Review
2.2       Nomadic Pastoralists and Nomadic Education in Nigeria:
2.3       An Overview
            The Use of Interactive Radio Instruction (IRI) Strategy in Nomadic Education: The Nigerian Experience.
2.4       Challenges of Nomadic Education in Nigeria
2.6       Theoretical Framework
            References

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1       Research Design
3.2       Population of Study
3.3       Sample Size
3.4       Sampling Technique
3.5       Measuring Instruments
3.6       Validity / Reliability of Measuring Instrument
3.7       Method of Data Presentation and Analysis
            References

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1       Data Presentation
4.3       Discussion of Findings
            References

CHAPTER FIVER: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1       Summary
5.2       Conclusion
5.3       Recommendations
            Bibliography
            Appendix

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of Study
It is arguably a fact that the provision of basic education for all citizens remains a sacred responsibility of governments the world over. Irrespective of where the argument tilts to, responsible governments around the world have continued to invest huge resources in the educational sector in order to develop their countries. However, for some countries in the world, the provision of basic education for all citizens must remain one issue that must be treated with all the levity it does not deserve. This development is pronounced in the third world countries where education is not seen as a serious business, despite the fact that it remains a key factor in measuring the development index of any nation.
In Africa for instance, it is estimated that about 67.16 million school age children are not in school because of their inability to access it. In Nigeria, of the 30 million school-aged children, 10 million are currently not enrolled in school; of those currently in primary school, less than one third will enrol in junior secondary, with even fewer reaching senior secondary school (Solomon and Sankey, 2010, p.9). Unfortunately, Nigeria is one of the most developed countries in the African continent with revenues from crude oil production accounting for over 80% of GDP, 95% of foreign exchange earnings, and about 65% of government revenues. Despite all this, poverty is widespread in Nigeria just as it ranks 157 out of 177 on the United Nations human development index of social indicators. GDP per capital is estimated at $1128 whereas 70.8% of the population live below income poverty line of $1 a day. The adult literacy rate is estimated at 69% (60.1% amongst women), while the vast majority (68%) of children aged 7 -12 enroll in primary schools. The level of basic literacy among children age 4-12 is low with only 28% of children able to read part or all of a sentence and 45% able to add numbers correctly. The case is even terrible in rural areas where majority do not have access to formal education of any kind (Solomon and Sankey, 2010, p. 8).
Education in Nigeria is characterized by poor quality of services due to lack of basic instructional materials and school furniture, outdated curriculum, dilapidated infrastructural facilities, high pupil-teacher and pupil-classroom ratio, high rate of unqualified teachers, weak and poorly funded school administration, and weak relationship between parents and schools. It must also be noted that the complexities of the federal structure of government in Nigeria with varying roles for stakeholders at the federal, state and local government levels is a challenge to the implementation of any programme (Solomon and Sankey 2010, p, 9). Muhammad (2008, p.10) argued that government mostly builds schools in the urban areas and as such the pupils in the rural areas find it difficult to travel long distance in search of education. Most of the rural population who even have access are hindered by their cultures and occupations (Umeh, 2011, p. 6). These were the many problems of the nomadic population who live in the rural areas and constantly migrate from one place to another in search of greener pasture for their flock.

The nomadic population in Nigeria accounts for 9.3 million people, including 3.1 million school-age children. The majority of them are pastoralists (7 million), while the remainders are migrant farmers and fisher folk mostly found in the Middle Belt and Southern Nigerian regions respectively. The participation of the nomads in existing formal and non-formal educational programmes used to be extremely low, with the population’s literacy rate ranging from 0.2 to 0.3 per cent in 1988 (Abbo, 2011, P. 39). According to Abbo (2011, p.39) the low level of nomadic pupils’ participation in educational programmes is due to constant migration, attitudinal indifference to acquiring education, cultural and religious affiliation, misappropriated educational funds and poor instructional and school materials. These were directly responsible for the nomads not having any form of education before 1989. Nomads who are seen as people without any permanent place of domicile were before the establishment of the National Commission for Nomadic Education (NCNE) in 1989, excluded from the normal scheme of things in Nigeria because of their inability to have formal education (Umeh 2011, p.5).
Successive government before 1989 believed that it was difficult and even impossible to educate the nomads because of their nomadic nature of moving from one terrain to another in search of greener pasture for their flocks which are their only source of livelihood. This was directly responsible for the nomads not having access to formal or informal education, despite the fact that these educationally disadvantaged people (nomads) constitute about 6.6 million of the African population and 9.3 million that of Nigeria. The government of General Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida, therefore, saw the population of the nomads as too big to be left uneducated. Based on this, the federal government established the National Commission for Nomadic Education (NCNE) in 1989 through the instrumentality of Decree 41 now Law 243 of the federation (Muhammad, 2012, p.7). His government mandated NCNE to look for alternative ways of educating these nomads. The Commission was charged with the implementation of National Policy on Education (NPE) developed in 1987, which is aimed at providing and widening access to quality basic education for nomads (i.e. nomadic pastoralists, migrant fisher folks and migrant farmers) boosting literacy and equipping them with skills and competencies to enhance their well-being and participation in national development and integration (Muhammad and Abbo, 2010, P. 2).....

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