AN EVALUATION OF JOB SATISFACTION AMONG JOURNALISTS IN SOUTH EAST NIGERIA

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ABSTRACT


This study evaluates the job satisfaction among journalists in South East, Nigeria. The study was anchored on Herzberg’s two factor theory and the Affect theory. Using survey research design, the study sampled 160 respondents which were got from a population of 1,189 registered journalists in the five states in South East, Nigeria. The Australian calculator provided by the National Statistical Service (NSS) was used to obtain the sample size. The study made use of questionnaire as the research instrument. Using statistical tables, simple percentages and charts in analyzing the data, the study found that majority of the respondents opined that pay/wages, good working environment, promotional opportunities, etc influence journalists’ job satisfaction to a large extent. It was observed that majority of the respondents were not encouraged by their salary as they get a relatively very low pay/wage. The study further revealed that majority of the respondents had made efforts to secure one better job or the other. The study recommends, however, that the pay package of journalists be improved commensurably as this will definitely encourage the journalists to put in their best in their services to humanity. It also recommends that employers should put in force other factors that shape journalists’ job satisfaction as mentioned by the respondents.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page
Table of Contents
List of Tables
List of Charts
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background of the Study
1.2       Statement of the Problem
1.3       Objectives of the Study
1.4       Research Questions
1.5       Significance of the Study
1.6       Scope of the Study
1.7       Operational Definition of Critical Terms
            References

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       The Concept of Job Satisfaction
2.1.1    Pay and job satisfaction
2.1.2    Supervision and job satisfaction
2.1.3    Promotional opportunities and job satisfaction
2.1.4    Co-workers and job satisfaction
2.1.5    Job security and job satisfaction
2.1.6    Relationship between Job Satisfaction and employee performance
2.17 Relationship between Job satisfaction and life satisfaction
2.2       Journalism in Nigeria
2.3       Theoretical Framework
2.3.1    Herzberg’s two factor theory
2.3.2 The Affect theory
References

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
3.2       Population of Study
3.3 Sample Size
3.4 Sampling Techniques/ Procedure
3.5 Instrument of Data Collection
3.6 Validity/Reliability of Research Instrument
3.7 Method of Data Administration
3.8 Method of Data Analysis
References

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSIONS
4.1 Description of Sample
4.2 Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendations
Bibliography
Appendix

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

The concept, ‘journalism’, is described by Daramola (2003) cited in Ehidiamen (2013, p.4) as the art of earning one’s living by writing for the print (or electronic) media. Journalists who are the practitioners in the field of journalism have the basic role of seeking, gathering, processing and disseminating stories through the mass media.

The importance of journalism comes from the people's right to opinion and expression. Since such rights would not be a reality without the press, people today depend greatly on the press for being informed. Journalism is taken as inseparable part of any democratic system. The press plays a vital role in a democratic society. It is an institution in its own right which has earned the recognition of 'Fourth Estate'. Journalism is the 'voice of the voiceless' and it plays the role of 'watch-dog' in our society. (Yangkai,2007, p. 35).

Still on the importance of journalism, Yangkai (2007, p.36) wrote, “journalism is a strong bridge between authorities and the people. It handles all public issues. In fact, press is the people's open forum. Press makes for such an environment where people get information and be prepared to take part in democracy. Press is the pillar of democracy”. It is the responsibility of the mass media in a democratic setting to keep the citizenry well informed. Unless citizens have adequate and accurate information on all issues and problems confronting them; they will be unable to take enlightened decisions on them.

In support of this, Ojo and Adebayo (1997, p. 98) wrote,


’the mass media educate the public on state affairs, disseminate information on the activities of the government, expose wrongdoing, including corrupt practices which impacts negatively on economic development, and keep the government on its toes, all to ensure accountability, transparency, probity and integrity’. They can act as a channel between the people and the authorities. The media may convey to the authorities, the grievances, the needs, the problems, the hopes and aspirations of the people and the responses of the authorities may in turn be conveyed by the media to the people. Because of the role they perform, the media can also act as a day-to-day parliament of the people, which may be more attentive than the actual parliament.

Through investigative journalism, scams and scandals can be unearthed, anti-social activities exposed and implementation of the policies and programmes monitored and pursued. The mass media can thus act as an ombudsman on behalf of the people almost every day. (Sawant, 1992, cited in Ojo and Adebayo,1997, p.14).

In the words of Olukotun (1999) cited in Yangkai (2000, p.4), ‘of the media’s several celebrated edifying roles in society, two stand out namely: that of an agenda setter, highlighting issues germane to overall development and progress, as well as that of an interlocutor in which the media take on the role of an informed partner in social and political dialogue, responding to questions in an interactive way’.

According to Oso (2013, p. 7), “the press is regarded as the voice of the people, the social watchdog. They set agenda and provide the citizens with the frames for understanding social issues which they report on. In the light of the inexhaustible roles played by the press in the society however, it is therefore imperative that attention be paid to job satisfaction questions of the press ‘field marshals’, (journalists)”. If journalists have positive attitude towards their job, they will be challenged to discharge their duties more effectively.

In the words of Khalid (2012, p.7), ‘an employee with a high level of job satisfaction holds positive feelings about his or her job, whereas a dissatisfied employee holds negative feelings’. The issue of job satisfaction, he noted, refers to general aspects of employee’s satisfaction like work situation, pay, job itself, supervision, relations with co-workers, and the firm as a whole. Sharing a similar view, Kenda, (1986), quoted in Khalid (2012, p.8) wrote, ‘…job satisfaction is the key to improving on the productivity, performance and commitment of employees in any industry.’

There are numerous publications on the issue of job satisfaction and this grows daily. Cranny, Smith, & Stone, (1992, p. 19), indicated that more than 5,000 studies on job satisfaction have been published. Oshagbemi (1996, p. 7), was of the opinion that if a count of relevant publications (articles and dissertations) were made,this estimate would probably be doubled. Therefore, as a result of many decades of effort by researchers, there appears to be a high level of agreement among scholars on the meaning of the concept, job satisfaction.

Typically, job satisfaction is conceptualized as a general attitude toward one object, the job (Okpara, 2006, p.47). Evans (1997) cited in Khalid (2012, p. 10) sees job satisfaction as ‘a state of mind determined by the extent to which the individual perceives his/her job related needs being met.’

Dvorak & Philips, (2001, p. 13) hold that the level of individual’s job satisfaction is affected by intrinsic and extrinsic motivating factors. They explain that the intrinsic satisfaction can come from normal professional activities, whereas, extrinsic factors can be....

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