AN ASSESSMENT OF THE USE OF RURAL BROADCASTING IN REDUCING POVERTY IN SOUTH-EAST, NIGERIA

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ABSTRACT

With the development of new communication technology, the power of mass media has gained greater importance. The media is pivotal in defining what we think, how we look and our social place and issues in the society. The study investigated essentially the use of rural broadcasting in reducing poverty in South-East, Nigeria. The objective of embarking on this study is to evaluate the use of rural broadcasting in reducing poverty in South-East, Nigeria. In conducting this study, survey method was used to generate both quantitative and qualitative data. The population of the study; the five South-Eastern States was 16, 381,729 while the sample size was 400. The sampling technique used was multi-stage sampling technique. In the study, an extensive review of literature was carried on to analyze and get a good understanding on the use of rural broadcasting in rural development. From the research work, it was revealed that factors like lack of research, corruption, wrong policies among others contribute to the failure of radio in addressing issues that concerns poverty. Therefore, if the use of rural broadcasting to reduce poverty is to be achieved successfully, it is recommended that the people whom the programme is directed to should participate in the programme from the conception to the execution of the programme.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page
Abstract
Table of contents

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background of the study
1.2       Statement of the problem
1.3       Objectives of the study
1.4       Research questions
1.5       Significance of the study
1.6       Scope of study
1.7       Definition of terms
            References

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Concept of Development and Communication
2.2 Poverty and human existence
2.3 Development Communication and Rural Broadcasting
2.4 Theoretical framework
References

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population of Study
3.3 Sample Size Determination
3.4 Sampling Techniques
3.5 Measuring Instruments
3.6 Validity and Reliability of the Instruments
3.7 Method of Data Collection
3.8 Method of Data Presentation and Analysis
References

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION
4.1 Presentation and Analysis of Data
4.2 Discussion of findings
References

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1       Summary
5.2       Conclusion
5.3       Recommendations
5.4       Limitations of study
Bibliography
Appendix

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study:
Development is concerned with the quality and quantity of life. According to Muhi, Panopio and Salcedo (1993, p.2) in Anaeto and Anaeto (2010, p.4), ‘Quality of life refers to opportunities and availability of social, health and educational concerns. Quantity of life involves the amount of economic and political participation of the people’. From the point of view of Daniel Learner, development means modernization. Contrary to this, most scholars see development as the freedom of human beings to live the way it suits them (Obirieze, 2012, p.3).

Development is about man; and man is both the subject and recipient of development. Any definition that is not centred on man i.e. acquiring skills on human and capital development through attitudes, values, principles, ideas and techniques is of no help to man. If you don’t develop man, how can man develop infrastructure? Development can also be a function of communication. The mass media can generate these ideas, techniques or principles to influence people in achieving development. No scholar doubts the role of communication in the society (Anaeto and Anaeto, 2010, p.4).

Torado and Smith (2003, p.17) are of the opinion that development is conceived as a multi-dimensional process involving major changes in social structures, popular attitudes and national institutions, as well as the acceleration of economic growth, the reduction of inequality and eradication of poverty.


Walter (1973, p.9) while putting development side by side with survival believes that development is universal because the conditions leading each economic expansion are universal. Everywhere, man was faced with the task of survival by meeting fundamental material needs; and better tools were a consequence of the interplay between human beings and nature, on the part of the struggle for survival. Stressing more on this, he adds that;

Of course, human history is not a record of advances and nothing else. There were periods in every part of the world when there were temporary setbacks and actual reduction of the capacity to produce basic necessities and other services for the population. But the overall tendency was towards increased production, at given points of time the increase in the quantity of goods was associated with a change in the quality or character of society.

According to ‘Communication for Development: United Nations system network on rural development and food security’, more than 850 million people in developing countries are excluded from a wide range of information and knowledge, with the rural poor in particular remaining isolated from both traditional media and new information and communication technologies which would improve their livelihoods. In support of this, the then United Nations secretary-general Kofi Annan, in an address to the World Bank conference on ‘Global Knowledge’ (1997) says that, “if information and knowledge are central to democracy, they are the conditions of development”. Therefore, the media is the yardstick of measuring development of any nation

A critical appraisal of the socio-economic development of the world indicates that there exists a spectrum of levels of development among the nation states and that, within a given nation; there also exist a spectrum of levels of affluence cum poverty. The development spectrum of the nations according to Aniebona (1991, p.111) is demonstrably correlated with the amount of natural resources, indigenous technology and political stability, whereas the affluence or poverty of individuals within a nation may be correlated with family background, ethnic origin, educational attainment et cetera, depending on the character of the nation in question.

In common language, the development spectrum is conveniently segmented into a few discrete “worlds”. But a typical developing country today has a citizenry with a multiplicity of ethnic groups, languages, dialects, cultural patterns, religious beliefs and traditional institutions that tend to defy the best of intention in national integration. Usually, only a small percentage of the people – ten percent or less in the worst cases – are literate in any language, indigenous or foreign.

Asemah (2011, p.314) in support of this says that development is changing process of knowledge, attitudes and practices. He further said that development is a widely participatory process of social change in a society, intended to bring about, both social and material advancement, including greater equality, freedom and other valued qualities for the majority of people through their gaining greater control over the environment.

It is on this note that developing nations including Nigeria adopted the new philosophy of development communication through the use of modern media. Development communication is corrective, integrative and revolutionary in nature. It is primarily communication for planned change which is intended to promote human development consciously. In the context of development, the term means a planned process of using a form of action or communication intended to transform the environment, institutions and attitudes of rural people to alleviate poverty and improve their way of life. It stresses the idea that the rural people must share fully in the development process through equitable access to resources, inputs and services and participation in the design and implementation of the development programmes (Anaeto and Anaeto, 2010, pp.2-3).....

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