THE EFFECT OF ALLIUM SATIVUM (GARLIC) ON PREGNANCY, FETAL WEIGHTS, AND SOME HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN ALBINO RATS

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ABSTRACT

The effects of Allium sativum (garlic) were on pregnancy, fetal weights and some hematological parameters were investigated in albino rats. The experimental rats were divided into 4 groups of ten rats each. Group A were fed with rat chow and water ad libitum. The group B were induced with pregnancy and treated with aqueous garlic extract, group C (non-pregnant and not treated with garlic), and group D (non-pregnant but received equal dose of garlic). Each of the rats were weighted and blood sample collected for fasting blood glucose, RBC count, WBC count, HB concentration, PCV and Platelet count. This is repeated weekly till the end of the experiment. The data were analyzed using SPSS (version 21) and ANOVA with post-hoc test for comparing their means. There was a significant decrease in the maternal/litter weights and sizes, fasting blood glucose levels and platelets in rats treated with garlic extract. There was also an increase in WBC, RBC and HB concentration in rats treated with aqueous garlic extract compared with the control. The result of this study showed that consumption of Allium sativum (garlic) can help reduce maternal/fetal weight gain in pregnancy, increase some blood parameters as well as reduce the blood glucose level. The anti hyperglycemic effect of garlic has been confirmed in animal studies, scientific evidence from human studies is lacking as most of the clinical studies on anti- hyperglycemic effect of garlic on fasting blood glucose level in normal healthy individuals but not in hyperglycemic patients, leaving no doubt that the role of garlic in the management of hyperglycemic still needs to be confirmed in humans.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page
Table of Contents
List of tables
List of figures
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.0 Introduction
1.1 Justification of the study
1.2 Background of the study
1.3 Aim of the Study
1.4 Specific Objectives
1.5 Significance of the Study
1.6 Scope of the Study

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.0 Review of Related Literature
2.1 What is Pregnancy?
2.2 Prevalence of Pregnancy Related Deaths
2.3 Pregnancy Signs/Symptoms in Humans
2.4 Stages of Pregnancy in Human beings
2.5 Modern Tests for Pregnancy
2.6 What is Garlic?
2.7 Origin/Brief History of Garlic
2.8 Medicinal/ Health Benefits of Garlic
2.9 Anti-Tumor Effect of Garlic
2.10 Effect of Garlic on Diabetes Mellitus
2.11 Effect of Garlic on Chemically-induced Hepatotoxicity
2.12 Anti-Microbial Effect of Garlic
2.13 What are Chemical Components of Garlic?
2.14 What are Hematological Parameters?
2.15 Hematological Components and its Relation to Health

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.0 Plant collection and identification
3.1.1 Materials\Equipment Used in the Research
3.1.2 Phytochemical Screening of Garlic
3.13 Preparation of the Extract
3.14 Phytochemical Screening
3.15 Method of Determination of Alkaloid in Garlic
3.16 Determination of saponins
3.17 Determination of Flavonoid
3.18 Determination of Tannins
3.19 Estimation of Carbohydrates
3.20 Test for Monosaccharides
3.21 Test for Reducing Sugar
3.22 Test for Cardiac Glycosides
3.24 Determination of the Weights
3.25 Determination of Litter Sizes
3.26 Determination of Hematological Parameters
3.27 Experimental Animals
3.28 Acute Toxicity Test
3.29 Induction of Pregnancy in Rats
3.30 Experimental Designs
3.31 Statistical Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
5.0 Discussion
5.1 Summary of Findings
5.2 Conclusion
REFERENCES


CHAPTER ONE
1.0            INTRODUCTION
Excessive weight gain during pregnancy has shown to increase blood volume, cardiac output and blood pressure during pregnancy. They showed almost a 6-fold rise of induced hypertension compared with women who had adequate gestational weight (Nan et al., 2013). The amount of weight gained during pregnancy can affect the immediate and future health of a woman and her infant. The population demographics of women who become pregnant have changed dramatically over the past decade, more women are overweight or obese at conception. Evidence supports associations between excessive gestational weight gain and increased birth weight and post partum weight retention but also between inadequate weight gain and decreased birth weight (Siega-Riz et al., 2009)
Studies have shown that obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy had 1.78 times the odd of caesarean section delivery as compared with normal body mass index and adequate weight gain in pregnancy (Graham et al., 2014). It is a well known fact that excessive weight gain is associated with diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia which are major risk factors for most arterial disease because of increase blood volume, increased cardiac output increased accumulation of fats in adipose tissues and decreased sensitivity of insulin to glucose. Avoiding excessive weight gain before and during pregnancy help to reduce these complications (Vallenki et al., 2012) Obesity which is an oxidatively stressed condition worsens the complications and the uses of the antioxidant found in garlic are protective against this free radical damage in the body. Antioxidant properties of Allium sativum (garlic) compounds represent the four main chemical classes; alliin, allyl cysteine, allyl disulphide and allicin exhibit different pattern of antioxidant activities as protective compounds against free radical damage (Chung, 2006).
1.1     JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
          Excessive weight during pregnancy has led to a lot of maternal and fetal complications such as hypertension in pregnancy/pre-eclampsia, blood clothing problems, gestational diabetes, miscarriages/still births, high risk of Caesarean section/induction of labor and birth defects/neural tube defects, macrosomia, pre-mature births, diabetes/heart disease/obesity in life. However, some studies has proposed  the  benefits of some of the antioxidants found in garlic in reducing the occurrences of hypertension in pregnancy, heart attack, coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis and hyperlipidemia and that avoiding excessive gain in weight before, during and post partum can help to reduce these complications.
          Moreover, there is paucity of information on the effect of garlic on pregnancy, fetal weights and hematological parameters. Therefore, the knowledge gained from this study may be beneficial in the weight management especially during pregnancy in women and their babies.
1.2     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

          This research investigated the effect of the extract of Allium sativum (garlic) in pregnancy, fetal weight and some hematological parameters. The relationship between the maternal and litter sizes, body weights, blood parameters have important influence in maternal health during pregnancy. The availability of garlic compelled the writer to investigate the effects of this plant in the management of excessive weight during pregnancy. Reduction in excessive weight gain during pregnancy reduces the risk of pregnancy related deaths.....

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