STUDENTS’ AND TEACHERS’ ATTITUDE AND PERCEPTIONS TOWARDS EXAMINATION MALPRACTICE IN NURSING EDUCATION IN ENUGU STATE

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ABSTRACT


This study was carried out to determine the students and teachers attitude and perceptions towards examination malpractice in Nursing Education in Enugu State. The objectives of the study were set to guide the study. Descriptive cross-sectional survey design was adopted for the study which was carried out in the four (4) Nursing Schools in Enugu State.  Purposive sampling procedure was used to select the final year nursing students and their teachers. A total population of 317 respondents was used. A researcher-developed structured questionnaire based on four (4) point modified Likest type was used and arranged in four (4) subscales. Face and content validity of the instrument was done by the project supervisor and two other senior lectures who are experts in measurement and evaluation. Reliability of the instrument was established by applying split-half method. Cronbach’s Alpha was used to analyse the data and a reliability co-efficient of 0.90 was obtained. Data were subjected to descriptive statistics and analysed using ANOVA and student’s t-test. Major findings of the study revealed that Nursing Students’ were more positively disposed towards examination malpractice, while teachers were more negatively disposed towards examination malpractice. Parental factors were the highest cause of examination malpractice as perceived by students and teachers while teacher’s factors were the least cause of examination malpractice. Students have higher agreement on patterns of examination malpractice than teachers, while teachers had higher agreement than students on the effects of examination malpractice. Nursing Students’ perceived the cause of examination malpractice more than the teachers. Nursing students and teachers enlisted: full implementation of examination rules and regulations, ensuring examination security and management, improved students reading culture etc, as the suggested solution to examination malpractice. There is a significant difference (P < 0.05) between the students and the teachers towards examination malpractice.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title
Table of Contents
List of Tables
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Statement of Problem
Purpose of the Study
Objective of the Study
Research Questions
Hypothesis
Significant of the Study
Scope of the Study
Operational Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
Conceptual Review
Concept of Examination Malpractice
Brief History of Examination Malpractice
Examination malpractice in Nursing Education
Prevalence of Examination Malpractice
Causes of Examination Malpractice
Types of examination malpractice
Implication of Examination Malpractice on Educational System
Patterns of examination malpractice in pre- Examination Malpractice
Patterns of Examination Malpractice During Examination
Patterns of Examination Malpractice After Examination
Implication of Examination Malpractice on Nursing Education
Implication of Examination Malpractice to Nursing Practice and Profession
Solution to Examination Malpractice
Theoretical Review
Conceptual Model
Empirical Review
Summary of Related literature

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Design
Area of Study
Population of Study
Subject for Study
Inclusion Criteria
Instrument for Data Collection
Validity of Instrument
Reliability of Instrument
Ethical Consideration
Procedure for Data Collection
Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS
Data Analysis
Hypotheses
Summary of Major Findings

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
Discussion of Findings
Limitation of Study
Summary
Conclusion
Suggestion for Further Studies
References
Appendixes

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study
Examination is the assessment of a person’s performance when confronted with series of questions, problems or tasks set for him/her in order to ascertain the amount of knowledge that he/she has acquired , extent to which he/she is able to utilize it or the quality and effectiveness of the skills he/she has developed (Asuru, 2010).  Examinations are used for various purposes in teaching and learning, prominent among which are monitoring students’ progress, promotion and certification. It also serves a formative function for diagnosis of students learning problems, for motivation and improvement of student academic performance as well as summative functions for administrative purposes.

Exanimation, therefore, is very important not just to the students and their teachers, but also to the public especially to the employers of labour and professional bodies (Adarnako 2010). The importance of examination in teaching learning process not withstanding its process is ridden with some degree of malpractices at all levels of education, including nursing education. Examination malpractice is any unauthorized action, activity, behaviour or practice that is associated with the preparation, conduct and processing of examination.  Other forms of assessment carried out by any person involved in preparing for examination at any level are also included (Joshua, 2011). In other words, examination malpractice is an illegal act committed by students, teachers, invigilators, supervisors, school administrators, parents or any public office or examination bodies in order to obtain underserved scores or grades. Imagie (2010) pointed out that examination malpractice is any wrong doing before during, or after any examination.

 In the past, experience showed that nursing students rarely indulged in examination malpractices. However, in recent times, there have been reported cases of examination malpractice among nursing students at all levels of nursing education.  This has gone from students coping from each other to a variety of sophisticated methods, for example, leakage of examination question paper.  Sometimes these students prepare the answers and copy them on pieces of paper with the hope of transcribing the material into the answer sheet.  Some write examination information on different parts of their bodies and clothes and recopy same during examination.  Some students code lecture points into micro-computers like Casio calculators and recall them in the hall during examination (Onyechere, 2009), and so on. This may be attributed to poor study habit, craze for certificate, moral laxity in the society, etc.

Attitude according to Allport (2010) is an expression of favour or disfavor towards a person, place, thing or event. It is the interpretation os sensory information or sensory information in order to represent and understand the environment. It is our sensory experience of the world around us which involves both the recognition of environmental stimuli and actions in response stimuli. It is quite obvious that ones attitude and perceptions greatly dictate one’s values, and disposition towards issues in life.

The current scenario of examination malpractice in nursing educational institutions is very disturbing because, those directly involved in these shameful acts are those that should fight the scourge. They include parents, lecturers, heads of departments, deans of faculties, the institutions management etc and most people who have direct or an indirect connections with examination or with  people who conduct examination (World Bank, 2012). Thus, examination malpractice has in all ramification greatly eroded the credibility of certificates  issued in Nigerian universities and other institutions of higher learning (Ayobulu, 2012). This repugnant situation has also led to lack of recognition of academic qualifications acquired in Nigerian universities, enthronement of mediocrity into sensitive position, frequent cancellations and suspension of results and suffering of innocent candidates (Benjamin, 2012). The calibers of graduates coming out of higher institutions actually confirm the havoc examination malpractice is wrecking in our educational system. Hence the present study undertakes to explore the students and teachers attitude and perceptions towards examination malpractice.

Statement of the Problem
Examination malpractice in the nursing education   system has become an intractable problem. It has became a major challenge to both the Nursing Council and nursing educational institutions at basic and tertiary levels. Thus, an oral interview with the principal of one of  the Schools of Nursing in the South East, showed that in 2007, a PTS student was caught copying from the material brought into the examination hall and was subsequently expelled from the school.

Similarly an oral interview with principal of another School of Nursing UNTH revealed that in 2012 a second year student was caught copying from what she copied on her palm during examination, she was also expelled from school.
Yet in another School of Nursing an interview with the chairman of the disciplinary committee showed that between 2006 and 2013, six cases of examination malpractice were reported. Three (3) out of these cases were PTS students; one (1) entered examination hall with copied material kept inside her hair, another kept the copied material inside her under wears while the third student copied on her laps. These students were expelled from the school after necessary interrogation by the school disciplinary committee. The remaining three were second year students who went inside the examination hall each with copied material.  They were caught and demoted.....

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