INVESTIGATION OF THE ANTIHYPERTENSIVE PROPERTIES OF LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM IN ALBINO RATS

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ABSTRACT 
This study investigated the antihypertensive properties of lycopersicon esculentum( LE ),(JOS, UTC and Gboko) varieties in wistar rats as regards their effects on SBP,DBP,TCL,Heart rates and body weights in salt induced hypertension .Twenty - five hypertensive male rats  between the ages of 3-4 months weighing 100-200g were divided into five groups A,B,C,D and E. Group A were used as control (Normotensive) and were fed with commercial rat chow and drinking water ad libitium. While groups B,C,D and E were hypertensive groups  treated with Jos, UTC , Gboko varieties and lisinopril respectively ad libitium for fourteen  days following weekly assessment of their cardiovascular parameters .The Phytochemical screening was analyzed using the standard spectrophotometric method. Statistical significant difference level was P<0 .05="" 16="" deviation.="" hoc="" least="" nbsp="" o:p="" post-="" spss="" standard="" test="" using="" version="" with="">

There were significant decrease in the parameters from day 14 to 28 except in the SBP  of group D  and DBP of group C instead of decreasing on day 21 like in groups B and E , it rather increased and had a sharp decrease on day 28 to a value almost equal to group E. The mean body weights of group A were compared with other groups B,C,D and E and found that there was no significant difference (P>0.05) though there were some increase in their body weights. Their SBP and DBP on day 21 and 28 were found to be significantly difference (P<0 .05="" 28.="" a.="" a="" absence="" also="" and="" another="" antihypertensive="" b="" be="" but="" c.="" c="" commeasurable="" compared="" consumption="" d.="" day="" decrease="" difference="" drug="" drugs.="" duration="" during="" e.="" e="" encourage="" experiment="" findings="" found="" from="" further="" group="" groups="" have="" heart="" hypertension="" in="" increase="" jos="" le="" lisinopril="" management="" mode="" modified="" more="" moreover="" no="" not="" o:p="" of="" one="" onset="" or="" other="" properly="" properties="" rates="" research="" shows="" significant="" significantly="" standard="" statistically="" suggests="" support="" tcl="" than="" that="" the="" their="" there="" therefore="" these="" till="" to="" treated="" use="" varieties="" variety="" was="" were="" when="" with="">

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page
Table of Contents
List of Tables
List of  figures/Plates
Abstract

Chapter One: Introduction

Chapter Two: Review of Related Literature

Chapter Three: Materials and Method

Chapter Four: Results

Chapter Five:            Discussion, Conclusion, Recommendation and Summary of findings

References:


CHAPTER ONE
1.0       INTRODUCTION
            Despite the growing burden of high blood pressure in developing countries, there is limited information on the contribution of ethnopharmacology in the treatment of hypertension. Globally, high blood pressure (HBP) is estimated to cause about  7.1 million deaths, 62% of cerebrovascular diseases are attributed to suboptimal blood pressure (Systolic >115mmHg) , Tomatoes  plays an active role in the management of hypertension, coronary heart disease, Ischemic stroke, type II diabetes and certain diseases. Worldwide about 58% of diabetic mellitus and 21% of Ischemic heart disease are attributed to high blood pressure (Onwubere, 2012). Hypertension is positively and independently associated with high morbidity and mortality rate in Africa especially in South-east Nigeria. It is also independently associated to other cardiovascular diseases such as angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, type II diabetes mellitus and other chronic diseases, along with infection and malnutrition (WHO, 2002). Blood Pressure (BP) is the pressure exerted by circulating blood upon the walls of blood vessels and is one of the principal vital signs. During each heartbeat, blood varies between maximum (systolic) and minimum (diastolic) pressure. The mean BP, due to pumping by the heart and resistance to flow in the blood vessels decreases as the circulating blood moves away from the heart. Though healthy adult human is 120mmHg (systolic) and 80mmHg diastolic (written 120/80 mmHg, and is spoken {in US and UK} as one twenty over eighty), systolic and diastolic arterial BPs are not static but undergo natural variations from one heartbeat to another and throughout the day in a circadian rhythm, they also change in response to stress, nutritional factors, drugs, diseases, exercise and momentarily from standing up. Persistently raised blood pressure exceeding about 120mmHg (systolic) and 90mmHg (diastolic) at rest is called hypertension.
1.1  JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
Most antihypertensive drugs are expensive and also have some side effects and sometimes are beyond the reach of ordinary Nigerian especially those in the rural communities.
Thus the needs to search for non pharmacological antihypertensive agents that are cheap and affordable with little or no side effects necessitated this study.
There is paucity of information on the antihypertensive effects of different varieties of lycopersicon esculentum ( LE). Lycopersicon hiresitium ( Jos variety), Lycopersicon perivianum ( UTC) and Lycopersicon cheesmani ( Gboko variety) Therefore this study investigated and compared the antihypertensive properties of these  varieties in wistar rats.

1.2       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
            This research investigated the effects of three different varieties of non-pharmacological antihypertensive agent (lycopersicon esculentum) in salt induced hypertension in Wistar rats. The relationship between  the body weights, systolic blood pressure (SBP), Diastolic blood pressure (DBP)  heart rates and cholesterol levels have important influences in individual’s health. With increasing rate of death among Nigerians especially the north central and South-Eastern part of Nigeria gives me a concern on the way forward.
            The availability of some of the varieties of the plant (lycopersicon esculentum) compelled the writer to assess their pharmacological effects in the management of hypertension among average hypertensive Nigerians. Already, there has been a growing concern about high rate of hypertension among Nigerians.
            Treatment of hypertension (HT) reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Tomatoes contain carotenoids such as lycopene, Beta- carotene and vitamin C, which are known as effective antioxidants to free radicals which slows the progression of atherosclerosis.

1.3  AIM  OF THE STUDY

This study was aimed at investigating the antihypertensive properties of three varieties of tomatoes: lycopersicon hiresutum (Jos variety) lycopersicon perivianum ( UTC)   lycopersicon cheesmani (Gboko variety) in some cardiovascular parameters in albino rats......

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