INVESTIGATION OF THE ANTI-HYPERGLYCEMIC ACTIVITIES OF AQUEOUS LEAVES EXTRACT OF VERNONIA AMYGDALINA (VA) IN RATS

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ABSTRACT

 This study investigated the anti-hyperglycemic activities of aqueous leaves extract of Vernonia Amygdalina VA in rats. The effect of the VA extract on blood glucose level, Serum triglyceride, cholesterol,(HDL), LDL  and body weight was estimated and the data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.The extract caused significant (P<0 .05="" a="" all="" alloxan-induced="" also="" and="" aqueous="" at="" b="" blood="" body="" both="" caused="" cholesterol="" conclusion="" dependent="" diabetic="" doses.="" extract="" findings="" from="" glucose="" hdl="" in="" increase="" leaves="" level="" non-diabetic="" normoglyceamic="" of="" on="" progressive="" rats="" reduction="" serum="" showed="" significant="" study="" that="" the="" this="" time="" triglyceride="" va="" weight="">
possess anti-hyperglycemic, lipid lowering and hypoglycemic activities and suggests that 80mg/kg was the most potent dose at which VA demonstrated these activities. The significant reduction in blood glucose, serum (triglyceride and cholesterol) level, body weight and an increase in serum HDL observed in this study justifies the ethnomedicinal uses of VA in the management of diabetes though effort should be made to optimize the dose for better effectiveness.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page
Abstract
Table of content
List of tables and figures

Chapter One: Introduction
1.1       DIABETES
1.2       Vernonia Amygdalina (bitter leaf)
1.3      Justification of the study
1.4.1    Aim
1.4.2    Objectives

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       The Prevalence of Diabetes
2.2       Types
2.2.1    Type I
2.2.2    Type II
2.2.3    Other Types (Type III)
2.2.4.   Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (type IV)
2.3       Causes
2.3.1    Genetic Factor
2.3.2    Immunologic Factor
2.3.3    Infectious Agents
2.4       Type II
2.5       Signs and Symptoms
2.6       Normal Physiology
2.7       Pathophysiology
2.8       Alloxan and its Mechanism of Action
2.8.1    Mechanism of Action of Alloxan
2.9    Management and Control of Diabetes
2.9.1 Prescribed Diet
2.9.2    Pharmacological Agents
2.9.3    Biguanides
2.9.4    Meglitinides
2.9.5    Thiazolidinediones
2.9.6    Insulin
2.10     Medicinal Uses of VA
2.10.1 Anti-cancer/tumor Properties of V. A
2.10.2 Antioxidant properties of V. amygdalina
2.10.3 Hepato-and nephro-protective properties of V. A
2.10.4 Oxytocic Property of V. A
2.10.5 Serum Lipid Modulation Properties of V.A
2.10.6 Other Medicinal Properties of V. Amygdalina
2.11 Phytochemicals in VA Aqueous Leaves Extract And their Functions
2.11.1 Glycosides
2.11.2 Flavonoids
2.11.3 Phenol
2.11.4 Saponnin
2.11.5 Alkaloids

Chapter Three: Methodology
3.1 Collection of Plant Materials
3.2       Preparation of the Extract
3.3        Phytochemical Analysis
3.3.1    Alkaloid Determination
3.3.2    Flavonoid Determination
3.3.3 Tannin Determination
3.3.4. Glycoside Determination
3.3.5 Saponin Determination
3.3.6 Determination of the Phenolic Compound
3.4 Experimental Animals
3.5 Induction of Diabetes
3.6Animal grouping and administration of the extract
3.7 Collection of blood sample
3.8 Blood glucose estimation
3.8.1 Measurement of body weight
3.8.2 Estimation of serum triglyceride
3.8.3 Estimation of serum cholesterol
3.8.4 Estimation of high density lipoprotein (HDL)
3.8.5 Estimation of low density lipoprotein (LDL)
3.9 Data analysis

Chapter Four: Results
4.1 Phytochemical  analysis : Qualitative
4.2 Quantitative analysis
4.3 Summary of findings

Chapter Five:
5.1 Discussion

5.2 conclusion

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1     DIABETES
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a syndrome of impaired carbohydrate, fats, and protein metabolism caused by either lack of insulin secretion or decreased sensitivity of the tissue to insulin (Seeley RR et al, 1996).The chronic hyperglycemia of diabetes is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of different organs, especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart and blood vessels (Diabetes care, 1997). Several pathogenic processes are involved in the development of diabetes. These range from autoimmune destruction of the Beta-cells of the pancreas with consequent insulin deficiency to abnormalities that result in resistance to insulin action. The basis of the abnormalities in carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism in diabetes is deficient action of insulin on target tissues. Deficient insulin action results from inadequate insulin secretion and/or diminished tissue responses to insulin at one or more points in the complex pathways of hormone action. Impairment of insulin secretion and defects in insulin action frequently coexist in the same patient, and it is often unclear which abnormality, if either alone, is the primary cause of the hyperglycemia (Diabetes care, 1997). Diabetic patients exhibit symptoms like hyperglycemia, polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia and glucosuria (Pignone et al., 2010).
There are three main types of diabetes mellitus:
Type 1 DM: This results from the body's failure to produce enough insulin. This form was previously referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenile diabetes". The cause is unknown (Vander dose et al, 1998). Type 1 diabetes must be managed with insulin injection (WHO, 2014).
Type 2 DM: This begins with insulin resistance a condition in which cells  fail to respond to insulin properly  as the disease progresses a lack of insulin may also develop ( Vander dose et al., 1998 ).This form was previously referred to as "non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (NIDDM) or "adult-onset diabetes". The primary cause is excessive body weight and not enough exercise ( Imari et al., 1998 ). Type 2 diabetes may be treated with medications with or without insulin and some oral medications with insulin injection (Richard et al., 2010).
Type III Gestational diabetes: This type of diabetes occurs when a pregnant woman without a previous history of diabetes develops a high blood glucose level (WHO, 2014). Prevention and treatment involves a healthy diet, physical exercise, not using tobacco and being a normal body weight, blood pressure control and proper foot care are also important for people with the disease.  Gestational diabetes usually resolves after the birth of the baby (Picot et al, 2009).
1.2 Vernonia Amygdalina  (bitter leaf)

Vernonia Amygdalina (VA) commonly called bitter leaf is a perennial shrub that belongs to the family Asteraceae (Iwalokwu et al., 2006). Bitter herbs are reportedly good for the body as they help tone the vital organs of the body like the kidney and liver. Ethnomedicinally, the leaves are consumed either as a vegetable (macerated leaves in soup) or aqueous extracts as tonics for the treatment of various illnesses (Igile et al, 1995).  Wild chimpanzees have been observed to ingest the leaves when suffering from parasitic infections (Huffman et al., 1993).  In North America, of the 17 species of Vernonia all have the same effective properties as a blood purifier, uterus toner and helps also to prevent atherosclerosis (Erasto et al., 2007; Nwanjo, 2005). Many herbalists and naturopathic doctors recommend aqueous extracts for their patients for the treatment of anemia, nausea, diabetes, loss of appetite, dysentery and other gastro intestinal track problems (Brout, 2011). VA leaves extracts have also been reported to help suppress, delay, or kill  cancer cells (Kupchan et al., 1969).The anti-bacteria, anti-fungal, anti-plasmodia, anti-cancer/tumor, anti-oxidant, oxytocic, hepato and nephro-protective effect of VA have been reported (Adebis, 2007).VA, is commonly consumed among so many Nigerians especially the Igbos and is used traditionally in the treatment of diabetes but there is lack of scientific evidence to substantiate this claim to the best knowledge of the researcher. This study is therefore, designed to investigate the anti-hyperglycemic effects of VA...... 
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