INFLUENCE OF RADIO CAMPAIGNS AGAINST THE PRACTICE OF FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION IN ABIA, EBONYI AND ENUGU STATES

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ABSTRACT
The mass media are believed to be central to the overall development of the society be it economic, social or health, through the various functions they perform especially the Agenda-setting function. This research carried out to assess the influence of radio campaigns against the practice of female genital mutilation in Abia, Ebonyi and Enugu states was conducted using the survey research method purposive sampling method is used to determine the sample size and the questionnaire as the instrument of data collection. A total number of 511 respondents were sampled 329 of them were females while 182 of them were males, Findings showed that 78.5% of the respondents have knowledge of female genital mutilation, 52% of them have been influenced by the different radio campaigns and have as well joined the media in the campaign against the practice of female genital mutilation. The researcher therefore recommends that the Nigerian government should enact laws against the  practice of female genital mutilation and a severe  punishment stipulated for violators .

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page
Table of Contents
List of tables
List of figures
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1: Background of the Study
1.2: Statement of Problem
1.3: Research Objectives
1.4: Research Questions
1.5: Significance of the Study
1.6: Scope of Study
1.7: Definition of Terms
REFERENCES

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1: Female Genital Mutilation: Conceptual Clarification
2.1.1: Classification of Female Genital Mutilation
2.1.2: Female Genital Mutilation: Justifications
2.1.3: Implications of Female Genital Mutilation
2.2.1: Radio as a tool of Development Communication
2.3: Theoretical Framework
2.31: Agenda Setting Theory
2.3.2: Health Belief Model
REFERENCES

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1: Research design
3.2: Population of study
3.3: Sample Size
3.4: Sampling Techniques
3.5: Instrument for Data Collection
3.6: Validity of Research Instrument
 3.7: Reliability of Research Instrument
3.8: Method of Data Administration and Collection
3.9:  Method of Data Presentation and Analysis
3.8 REFERENCES

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1: Description of samples
4.2: Data presentation
4.3: Discussion of Findings
4.4: Summary of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1: Conclusion
5.2: Recommendations
5.3: Limitations of Study
5.4: Suggestions for Further Studies
BIBLIOGRAPHY

APPENDIX

 CHAPTER ONE 
INTRODUCTION
1.1  Background of the Study
The provision of information has gained popularity in the quest to empower the people through radio as an effective tool for communication at the grassroots level. Kumar (2004) identified radio as an avenue for participatory communication and as a tool relevant in both economic, social and health development. Radio can play a significant role at the grassroots level for rural development. For instance, issues of poverty, agriculture, gender inequality, education, and health matters such as HIV Aids, Ebola virus disease, Malaria, and female genital mutilation among others, could be the focus of radio campaigns. Communication is a vital component of healthcare delivery.  Current research on health communication clearly illustrates the powerful influences of communication in healthcare delivery. Mass media campaigns can raise awareness of an issue, enhance knowledge and beliefs and reinforce existing attitudes Mustapha (2008, p.19).
In this regard, radio provides a set of participatory communication techniques that provide a platform for the discussion of health issues on female genital mutilation. This could be done through interactive discussions like phone- in programmes, group discussions and interviews mostly on the dangers associated with the practice of female genital mutilation using local languages to communicate directly with the people. Radio is very central to development because, it is a cheap medium for mobilization of people and information dissemination which provides solution to local problems. The mass media have been integral to many health campaigns globally, and in Nigeria in particular, they can also change attitudes and behaviours, especially when the change is simple and of obvious benefit to the intended audience. The mass media are referred to as the key component of global strategy for sustainable health issues. More than 60% of groups working on abandonment of female genital mutilation cite the mass media as a very important programme outlet PRB, (2002).  For example, the National Council of Women Societies (NCWS), broadcasts regular radio programmes (Ndukaku) encouraging the abandonment of female genital mutilation.  
There has been a growing concern about the increasing wave of the obnoxious practice of female genital mutilation especially in the African continent, and the call for its eradication have dominated global debate. Nzeagwu (2005, p.55). Female genital mutilation is universally unacceptable, it is an infringement on the physical and psychosexual integrity of women and girls, and it is also a form of violence against them, WHO (1998). Health is wealth and the quality of human life depends on the quality of health, better health translates into greater and more equitably distributed wealth to any nation, this makes the campaign against female genital mutilation very necessary.
Female genital mutilation is a harmful traditional practice with severe consequences on the health and well-being of girls and women. Female genital mutilation is practiced in more than 28 countries in Africa, usually on girls under the age of 15 years, and in some countries in the Middle East and Asia. Female genital mutilation is also practiced by immigrant communities in a number of other countries, including Australia, Canada, France, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States (HRP, 2006).  For many girls and women, undergoing female genital cutting, it is a traumatic experience that leaves a lasting psychological mark on the victim and may adversely affect their mental health. In fact, several psychological and psychosomatic disorders such as disordered eating and sleeping habits have been attributed to female genital cutting (UNICEF, 2006). There are also reports of post-traumatic stress, disorder, anxiety and depression associated with female genital mutilation (WHO, 2004).  The health consequences of the practice vary according to the procedure used.
            According to WHO (2012), female genital mutilaton is recognized internationally as a violation of human rights of girls and women, and constituting extreme form of gender discrimination. The WHO estimates that 140 million women and girls in the world have been victims of some form of female genital mutilation and each year, 3 million girls are subjected to this harmful traditional practice.  Given current birth rates, this means that about 2 million girls are at risk of some form of genital mutilation every year.
Prevalence rates of female genital mutilation are significantly different between states and ethnic groups. Remarkable differences are also found between the urban and rural areas. Researchers believe that “the amount and severity of female genital mutilation is greater in rural areas where cultural traditions and the marriage convention regarding female genital mutilation may be stronger and residents have less exposure to modern ideas” Horowitz & Jackson, (1995 p.87). In these areas, non-medical, traditional practitioners usually perform the surgery with any available sharp instrument.  An exploration of attitudes toward female genital mutilation in Nigeria shows that 73 women, undergo surgery in hospitals and clinics as a result of female genital mutilation, Retlaff, (1999). Furthermore, women in urban areas demonstrate more accurate knowledge on the consequences of female genital mutilation than their rural counterparts, Orubuloye, I. O., Caldwell, P., & Caldwell, V. (2000). Young, urban women also criticized the act more than those living in rural areas Yoder & Henry, (2002). The practice seems to be declining in urban areas of many African countries as social norms have changed, Toubia & Izett, (1998). Urban areas.....

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