IMPACT OF LOCUS OF CONTROL, SELF-ESTEEM AND GENDER ON ATTITUDE TOWARDS CHILD ADOPTION IN NSUKKA, ENUGU STATE

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ABSTRACT
This study examined the relationship between locus of control, self-esteem, gender and attitude towards child adoption in Nsukka, Enugu State. Three hundred and three (303 people) of Nsukka local Government workers participated in the study (150 males and 153 females). Their ages range between 21years and 55 years with a mean age of (38.90) years. Three instruments were used for data collection namely: self-esteem scale developed by Rosenberg (1965), locus of control scale developed by Terry (2003) and Attitude to child adoption questionnaire. All scales used were psychometrically sound.  Result of the Pearson’s product correlational analysis indicated that individuals with high self-esteem expressed more positive attitude towards child adoption than those with low self-esteem (r = 35.7; P<.005) for high self-esteem while calculated correlation coefficient for low self-esteem is (r – 0.35; P<.005). Results also showed that locus of control and gender had no or little correlation coefficient towards child adoption as calculated r is (– 1.1; P< .005) for locus of control while calculated coefficient for males and females gender is (r – 100.8) and (r – 98.3) respectively. The findings of the study suggested that personalities are important factor in people’s attitudes towards child adoption. It is suggested in the study that researchers who are interested in changing people’s attitude towards child adoption policy need to consider personality factors first and foremost. Finally, the above results have implication for social policy and social work practice in Nsukka community, in Enugu State. 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page
Table of contents
List of tables
List of appendices
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Statement of the problem
Purpose of the study
Operational definition of terms

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
Theoretical review
Empirical review
Summary of literature reviewed
Hypothesis

CHAPTER THREE: METHOD
Participants
Instrument
Procedure
Design/statistics

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION
Implications of the study
Limitations of the study, and suggestion for further studies
Summary and conclusion
REFERENCES

APPENDICES

CHAPTER ONE
Introduction
The importance attached to children in most societies has made imperative that every home/family desire to have children. Besides, companionship derived from marriage, children foster love and happiness among married couples. Thus, the joy and stability that children bring to families cannot be over emphasized. This may be why couples who are unable, because of one reason or the other to bear children go for adoption.
However, adoption is a process whereby a person assumes the role of parenting for another child and in so doing permanently transfers all rights and responsibilities, along with filiations, from the biological parents or parent (Pertman, 2000). According to Logan (1996) adoption is defined as act of transferring parental rights and duties to someone other than the adopted person’s biological parents. Adoption, according to Wikipedia (2013) is a process whereby a person assumes the parenting for another and, in so doing, permanently transfers all rights and responsibilities, along with filiations, from the biological parent or parents. Unlike, guardianship or other systems design for the care of the young, adoption is intended to effect a permanent change in status of the child and as such requires societal recognition, either through legal or religious sanction.
Nevertheless, adoption practice has been in existence in an informal form prior to colonial era. The system then could be contemporarily described as fosterage. This is a situation where children could be fostered out to kin members for variety of reasons. Such reasons could be because of infertility of the fostered parent(s). Meanwhile, contemporary adoption practices can be open or closed (Logan, 1996). Open adoption, allows identifying information to be communicated between adoptive and biological parents and, perhaps interaction between kin and the adopted child. While close adoption (i.e. confidential or secret adoption) seal all identifying information, maintaining it as secret and preventing disclosure of the adoptive parents, biological kins and adoptees (Logan, 1996).
Bloodhound Team (2004) defined adoption as the legal and emotional acceptance into a parent family of a child not born to the parents but have the parents name and the same legal rights as a child by birth. By this definition adopted child assumes the identity of the adoptive parents as prescribe by the law which permit inheritance right to be transferred to the adopted child. Adopted children contemporary are being seen as orphans who have no birth rights, homeless and hopeless or any representation of such in the society. Nydam (1992) corroborates the abandoned posture of adopted child by asserting that adoption is the first of all an experience of rejection of not fitting into this world, where a child is being dismissed, separated from origins and denied the basic rights of birth, and offered up to unasked adoptive parents. He asserted that adoption should be given a new status and a new place in the world of rejection.
However, in African culture a child is being considered as central to the sustenance and continual existence of happy home. In African continent adoption is seen as an arrangement by which a child whose biological parents are unable to care for is being adopted and given the same legal and social status as though he/she were the biological child of the adoptive families. For instance in some part of South Africa, the exchange of female relatives from one family to another, for marriage is meant to create enduring connections and social solidarity among families and lineages, e.g. among the Mbuti people in South Africa, sisters are being exchange for marriage. In that part of African, adoption is not seen as a means of filling the gap created in the home as a result of childlessness, but a process to solidified a close family relationship between two families (Anderson, 2012).

In Nigerian culture today, much is talked about adoption and adopted child and yet many are adopting and owing children because of health and social problems of infertility. Couples who are unable to bear children may experience a wide spectrum of some psychological feeling such as jealousness, despair, envy, isolation and bitterness (Schalesky, 2001). Others may feel singled out for Ordeal, few others seem to experience difficulties to fit into the social circles, where the society lay much emphasizes on having children (Daniluk, 1996). In Nigeria, socio-cultural and environmental factors do tremendously affect the process of adoption. Each ethnic group in Nigeria has a set of critical social orders of carrying out everyday activities and mode of living, which give rise to local attitude and practice in terms of child adoption. In Nigeria perspective, adoption simply means getting a child who is not your biological child and giving him/her all the right supposed for a biological child. Indeed, to adopt a child in Nigeria is not an easy task. A lot of protocols are involved before a child can be adopted. The adoptive parents will answer a lot of paper questions which include their financial status, religious status, their social life, and environment where they reside (Joyce 2013)......

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