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The effect of G. Kola seed extract on the testes and sexual behavior of diabetic male rats was studied in adult male rats with the aim of its use for ameliorating the infetility that comes with the effect of diabetes. The experimental group of seven male rats were fed with G. Kola seed extract (200mgkg-1body weight) for three consecutive weeks. The control groupand diabetic control group of seven male rats each,recieved water ad libitum dailyfor three consecutive weeks. Equal numberof sixrats were sacrificed from each group after a 21days of feeding and have their testes harvested, weighed and histology of the testes was done. Sperm was also taken from the epididymis of the rats and examined for sperm motility. The testicular weight of the G.Kola-treated diabetic male rats(0.8642g/±0.0640) compared to those of the diabetic control group(0.8188g/±0.1109) showed significant difference at p value < 0.05. The photomicrogram of tissue sections of testis of rats among the G. Kola-treated diabetic group showed ameliorative effect of G. Kola extract on the testes of the diabetic male rats with generation of new seminiferous cells in the seminiferous tubules replacing the defoliated cells caused by diabetes. Increased sperm motility was observed among male rats treated with the extract of G. Kola(85.70%±6.2716) when  compared with the diabetic control(54.30%±4.1633) but not much difference was observed with the normal control male rats (86.20%±4.9833). The sexual behaviour of the G. Kola-treated diabetic male rats as observed in this study showed sexual enhancing effects on the male rats as evidenced  by increased mounting and intromission frequencies with increased number of subsequent ejaculation over a period of 20min observation period. This is considered to be a measure of both lubido and potency. Since this study was less than 58days, spermatogonia exposed to G. Kola seed extract treatment had not been deposited into the epididymis for obvservation. A longer study is therefore necessary to make any meaningful observations on the effect of treatment on epididymal sperm counts. Nevertheless, this study has clearly showed that kolaviron, an extract of G. Kola seed, ameliorates effects of diabetes on the testes of diabetic male rats, increase sperm motility and enhance sexual behaviour of the same.


Title page
Table of content

1.0 Introduction
1.1 Background of study
1.2 Aim of the study
1.3 Objectives of the study
1.4 Justification of the study
1.5 Definition of terms

2.0 Literature review
2.1 Pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus
2.2 Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus
2.3 Comparison of type I and II diabetes mellitus
2.4 Signs and symptoms ofdiabetes mellitus
2.5 Diabetic emergencies
2.6 Complications of diabetes mellitus
2.7 Garcinia kola
2.8 Alloxan
2.9 Male reproductive organ
2.9.1 External male genital organ
2.9.2 Internal male genital organ

3.0 Methodology
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Plant material/extraction
3.3 Administration of alloxan
3.4 Animal model
3.5 Sperm motility test
3.6 Sexual behaviour test
3.7 Statistical analysis

4.0 Results
4.1 Introduction
4.2 phytochemical analysis of Garcia kola
4.3 Presentation of results
Table 1: Testicular weight distribution
Table 2: Table of significance
Table 3: Table of mean sperm motility
Fig 1: Barchart showing mean of sperm motility
Fig 2: Photomicrogram of histological structure of seminiferous tubule of control rats
Fig 3: Photomicrogram of  degenerated histological structure of seminiferous tubule of diabetis rats
Fig 4&5: Photomicrogram of  histological structure of seminiferous tubule of G. Kola treated rats
Fig 6: Barchart showing mount frequencies of rats in each goup
Fig 7: Barchart showing intromission frequencies of rats in each goup
Fig 8: Barchart showing frequencies of ejaculation as observed among rats of each goup

5.0 Discussion
5.1 Conclusion


Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disease in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period (World Health Organization, 2014). Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications (WHO, 2013).Acute complications include diabetic ketoacidosis and non-ketotic hyperosmolar coma (Kitabchi, et al. 2009). Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, kidney failure, foot ulcers and damage to the eyes(WHO, 2013).Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced (David G. Gardner, Dolores, 2011).
There are three main types of diabetes mellitus:
  1. Type 1 DM results from the body's failure to produce enough insulin. This form was previously referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenile diabetes". The cause is unknown (WHO, 2013).
  2. Type 2 DM begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly (WHO, 2013). As the disease progresses a lack of insulin may also develop (Textbook of diabetes mellitus, 2nd ed. 2012). This form was previously referred to as "non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (NIDDM) or "adult-onset diabetes". The primary cause is excessive body weight and not enough exercise (WHO, 2013).
  3. Gestational diabetes is the third main form and occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop a high blood glucose level (WHO, 2013).
Prevention and treatment involves a healthy diet, physical exercise, avoiding smoking oftobacco and maintaning a normal body weight. Blood pressure control and proper foot care are also important for people with the disease. Type 1 diabetes must be managed with insulin injections (WHO, 2013). Type 2 diabetes may be treated with medications with or without insulin (World Health Organization, 2013). Insulin and some oral medications can cause low blood sugar(Richard S. Irwin, James M. 2010). Weight loss surgery in those with obesity is an effective measure in those with type 2 DM ((Picot, J; et al 2009).Gestational diabetes usually resolves after the birth of the baby(Cash, Jill 2014).As of 2014, an estimated 387 million people have diabetes worldwide, (International Diabetes Federation, 2014), with type 2 diabetes making up about 90% of the cases(Williams textbook of endocrinology 12th ed.;Shi, Yuankai, et al. 2012).
 This is equal to 8.3% of the adult population,with equal rates in both women and men(Shi, Yuankai, et al. 2012).
 In the years 2012 to 2014, diabetes is estimated to have resulted in 1.5 to 4.9 million deaths per year (World Health Organization, 2013;International Diabetes Federation, 2014). Diabetes at least doubles the risk of death (WHO, 2013).The number of people with diabetes is expected to rise to 592 million by 2035(International Diabetes Federation, 2014). The global economic cost of diabetes in 2014 was estimated to be $612 billion USD, (American DiabetesAssociation 2013). In the United States, diabetes cost $245 billion in 2012,(Cooke DW, Plotnick L 2008).
All forms of diabetes increase the risk of long-term complications. These typically develop after many years (10–20), but may be the first symptom in those who have otherwise not received a diagnosis before that time.The major long-term complications relate to damage to blood vessels. Diabetes doubles the risk of cardiovascular disease (Sarwar N, et al, 2010), and about 75% of deaths in diabetics are due to coronary artery disease (O'Gara PT, et al, 2013). Other "macrovascular" diseases are stroke, and peripheral vascular disease.The primary microvascular complications of diabetes include damage to the eyes, kidneys, and nerves (World Health organization, 2014).Damage to the eyes, known as diabetic retinopathy, is caused by damage to the blood vessels in the retina of the eye, and can result in gradual vision loss and potentially blindness (World Health organization, 2014).Damage to the kidneys, known as diabetic nephropathy, can lead to tissue scarring, urine protein loss, and eventually chronic kidney disease, sometimes requiring dialysis or kidney transplant (World Health organization, 2014).Damage to the nerves of the body, known as diabetic neuropathy, is the most common complication of diabetes (World Health organization, 2014).....

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