CLASSIFICATION SCHEME FOR SCHOOL LIBRARIES IN NSUKKA EDUCATION ZONE, ENUGU STATE, NIGERIA

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PREAMBLE
This classification scheme for school libraries was developed as a result of the urgent need to solve the problem of either poor or zero organization of school library resources in Nigeria with special reference to Nsukka Education Zone. The scheme was developed after all possible adequate consultations and evaluations from proper authorities were conducted.
Findings generated from Post Primary School Board (PPSMB), Local Government Education Authority in Nsukka Local Government Area, school administrators, school librarians, etc suggested that there was an urgent need to develop a classification scheme for the organization of school library resources. Their recommendations basically from interview schedule and questionnaire proved that the research was timely and worthwhile.
The researcher nevertheless verified the above assertions through empirical data derived from observation checklist and document analysis guide. All the findings geared towards the essence of proper and efficient organization of school library resources.

In developing the scheme, school syllables and curriculum at all school (primary and secondary) levels were extensively studied in order to capture all the areas of school library collections that must be covered in the new scheme. On the other hand, several other relevant documents such as Government Policies on Education, Minimum Standards for School Libraries in Nigeria, School Libraries Worldwide, etc were studied in order to give the scheme the best possible coverage it deserves. New and contemporary fields/disciplines and subjects were taken into account and geographical areas were adequately and accurately covered/represented.


CONTENTS
Preamble
Introduction
Part A:           The Classes
·         20 Main Classes
·         100 Divisions
·         500 Sections
The Schedule
Part B:            The Tables
·         TABLE 1 – Type/Area Subdivision
·         TABLE 2 – Geographic Subdivision
·         TABLE 3 – Language Subdivision
PART D:        The Index


INTRODUCTION
 (How to use the scheme)
This classification scheme provides a system of organizing school library resources, books and non book resources alike. It has four broad parts summarized below:
Part A covers the summary of the classes (which consists of 20 Main Classes, 100 Divisions and 500 Sections) and the schedule which is a detailed step-by-step analysis and description of all the 500 sections.
Part B is the tables. There are three tables in all:
·         Table 1 – Type/Area Subdivision
·         Table 2 – Language Subdivision
·         Table 3 – Geographic Subdivision
Part C covers the Index which is an alphabetical listing of all the key words (classes) covered by the scheme pointing out where they may be located at the schedule.
PART A
Basically, the scheme uses alpha-numeric (alphabets and numbers) symbols to represent the classes developed. The 20 main classes is developed using the first twenty English alphabets, A – T.  Each alphabet begins the class represented by it except Class D which stands for Education. Class N was however unassigned in order to accommodate new subjects that might come in future and which would be included on the review of the scheme. This mnemonic strategy serves as memory aid for cataloguers (teacher/school librarians) and for the pupils and students who learn faster and easily with mnemonics. This strategy on the other hand assists the user/searcher to find a specific item in the class and invariably directs him/her where related subjects belong.

The classes are arranged alphabetically (not hierarchically). Classes therefore were developed according to subject areas in primary and secondary schools and not by discipline as found with most other classification schemes. This way, each individual class is described appropriately in order to state clearly the exact material to be classed there.
From the 20 main classes, five (5) other classes were created from each class to make 100 divisions.

Example –
A – Audiovisual Resources
            A1 – Cartographic Materials
            A2 – Microforms
            A3 – Graphic Materials
            A4 – Audio and Video Disks
            A5 – Three Dimensional Objects

Each of the 100 divisions gave rise to five (5) other sub-classes making 500 sections. This approach as earlier stated is to be as specific as possible in organizing the resources.
Example –
A3 – Graphic Materials
            A31 – slides and filmstrips
            A32 – posters and cartoons
            A33 – radiographs
            A34 – pictures
            A35 – photographs

In the schedule, there is cross-referencing where the user/searcher is redirected on the classification of materials which are related by content context, form, etc.
For example, this is an extract from the schedule on class A35
A35 – Photographs – Here, class all photographs. Photographs are pictures made using a camera in which an image is focused on to light sensitive material and then made visible and permanent by chemical treatment.
! However, Materials on the art, techniques and processes of Photography are entered under T53

THE TABLES
The table is divided into three parts: TABLE 1 – Type/Area Subdivision, TABLE 2 – Geographic Subdivision and TABLE 3 – Language Subdivision.

Numbers derived from the table is not used alone. Instead, they only act as attachments or appendages to numbers derived from the schedule.  The cataloguers (i.e. teacher/school librarian) having classified the material using the schedule is further expected to determine the specific type/area subdivision for that material using the table.
For example, in classifying these two materials, the following class marks is derived:
           
Physical Geography –                         P33
            Physical Geography in Africa –          P33.01

Note: 01 in the second example is derived from table 2, geographic subdivision.

This subdivision therefore is meant to classify each material as specific as possible thereby reducing possible duplication and assigning of identical numbers to separate works.
With the tables, however, numbers are assigned according to order of precedence. Example, a material on English Grammar for Junior Secondary Students in Nigeria will be classified using the class mark for English Grammar and then appending the number for Junior Students which appeared first in table 1, and not Nigeria (in geographic subdivision) which appeared in Table 2. Thus the class mark for the material is E4.0017 and not E4.130

THE INDEX
The index is the alphabetical listing of all the keywords, concepts, topics, titles, etc used in the scheme and the pages where they may be located......

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