POT AND FIELD TRIALS OF THREE ACCESSIONS OF Moringa oleifera LAM AS INFLUENCED BY POULTRY MANURE APPLICATION

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ABSTRACT


Three experiments were conducted in the Department of Crop Science Faculty of Agriculture, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, to evaluate three accessions of Moringa oleifera Lam as influenced by three poultry manure rates. The objectives of the research were to: evaluate four nursery media on seedling emergence; and determine the effects of three poultry manure rates on growth and yield of Moringa oleifera in pot and field experiments. Three accessions of Moringa oleifera were collected from Nsukka, Jos and Ibadan. The experiments were carried out in four different media, that is sawdust (100%), sawdust + poultry manure (2:1), top soil (100%) and top soil + poultry manure + river sand (3: 2: 1). Three rates of poultry manure were applied as follows, zero tones/ha, 5 t/ha and 10t/ha. The parameters measured included seedling emergence traits, root volume, dry matter and moisture content of leaves, pod, stem and root. The result showed that the sawdust media had significantly (P<0 .05="" 0="" 10="" 5="" accession="" accessions="" also="" and="" application="" best="" better="" but="" cm="" co-efficient="" content.="" content="" days="" dry="" emergence.="" emergence="" evaluation="" field="" flowering="" for="" formation.="" from="" germination="" growth="" ha.="" ha="" had="" higher="" highest="" i="" ibadan.="" ibadan="" jos="" levels="" longest="" lower="" manure="" matter="" measured.="" media="" moisture="" most="" nsukka="" obtained="" of="" others.="" parameters="" percentage="" performance="" performed="" planting="" pod="" poultry="" produced="" recorded="" result="" sawdust="" seedling.="" seedling="" showed="" significantly="" similar.="" similar="" soil="" soilless="" statistically="" t="" than="" that="" the="" to="" tons="" top="" topsoil="" traits.="" treated="" unamended="" value="" values.="" values="" velocity="" were="" while="" with="" yield="">Moringa oleifera
and application of high quantities of manure in the plastic pot and field can improve the growth and yield of Moringa oleifera.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page
Table of contents
List of tables
Abstract

INTRODUCTION

LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       Botany of Moringa Oleifera
2.2       Distribution
2.3       Propagation and Management
2.4       Utilization of Moringa
2.4.1    Human Consumption of Moringa
2.4.2    Industrial Uses of Moringa oil
2.4.3    Water Purification
2.4.4    Plant Growth Enhancers
2.4.5    Moringa as a Forage Plant
2.4.6    Moringa Shoots as Green Manure
2.4.7    Natural Medicines
2.5       Post Harvest Handling and Processing
2.6       Pest and Disease of Moringa Plant

MATERIALS AND METHODS
Sources of seed material
Seedling emergence test for three accessions of Moringa oleifera plant in four different potting media
The Effect of Three Different Levels of Poultry Manure on Growth and Yield
of Three Accessions of Moringa oleifera Plant Raised in Plastic Pot
The Effect of Three Different Levels of Poultry Manure on Growth and
Biomass Production of Three Accessions of Moringa oleifera Plants on the Field
Statistical Analysis

RESULT
Discussion

Conclusion
REFERENCES

INTRODUCTION

Moringa oleifera Lam is a multipurpose tree belonging to the family Moringaceae. It is a native of India but is widely distributed in many tropical regions, in the pacific region (Aregheore, 2002), in West Africa (Freiberger et al., 1998; Locket et al., 2000) as well as Central America and the Caribbean (Ramachandran et al., 1980 and Foidl et al, 1999). In English, it is commonly known as Horseradish tree, Drumstick tree, Never Die tree, Moringa tree, West Indians call it Ben tree and Radish tree (Ramachandran et al., 1980). In Nigeria, it is commonly called Okwe Oyibo in Igbo, Zogallandi in Hausa and Ewe-igbale in Yoruba.
There are about thirteen (13) species of this plant but the most widely cultivated and popular among them is the genus Moringa oleifera. The crop is grown all over the country for its nutritious pods, leaves and flowers which are rich sources of proteins, vitamins and minerals (Rajkumar et al., 1973). In spite of its nutritional and medicinal importance, the crop still remains under- exploited (Peter, 1979). It can grow well on hillsides but is more frequently found growing on pasturelands or in river basins. It is fast growing tree and has been found to grow to 6-7m in one year in areas receiving less than 400mm mean annual rainfall (Odee, 1998). Agronomic trials with Moringa showed that the plant could grow well in hilly areas and soils of low fertility.
It is a perennial softwood with timber of low quality and for centuries has been advocated for traditional medicine and other industrial uses. All parts of the Moringa tree are edible and have been consumed by humans. According to Fuglie (1999), Moringa is used in alley cropping (biomass production), animal forage (leaves and treated seed-cake), biogas (from leaves) domestic clearing agent (crushed leaves), blue dye (wood), fencing (living tree), gum (from tree trunks), honey and sugarcane juice clarifier (powedered seeds), honey (flower nectar) medicine (all plant parts), as ornamental plant, biopesticides (soil incorporation of leaves to prevent seedling damping off), pulp (wood) rope (bark), tannin for tanning hides (bark and gum), water purification (powedered seeds). Seeds of Moringa are used for oil extraction and curing provider (Golh, 1998). It has been used in salads, machine lubrication, and in the manufacture of perfume and hair care products (Tsaknis, 1999). This tree, has in recent times, been advocated as an outstanding indigenous source of highly digestible protein, calcium, iron, vitamin C and carotenoids suitable for utilization in many of the so-called “developing” regions of the world where undernourishment is a major concern.

Moringa oleifera has been found to exhibit antimicrobial and antifungal properties. The Moringa leaves and roots are used to treat high blood pressure, diabetes, typhoid fever, urinary tract infection, staphylococcus infection, dysentery and diarrhea (Fahey, 2005). Extract from the root is used externally as a stain tonic in treatment of epilepsy, nervous disorders, hysteria and hypoprotection (Pan and Kumar, 2002).

Nursery operations in Nigeria are in most cases, subsistence. However, there are few fairly organized standard nursery setups in colleges and agricultural establishments. The nursery operations involve different media. Nursery potting media influence quality of seedlings produced thereof (Baiyeri, 2005, Sakin et al., 2005, Agbo and Omaliko, 2006). The quality of seedlings obtained from a nursery influences reestablishment in the field (Baiyeri 2006) and the eventual productivity of an orchard (Baiyeri and Ndubuizu, 1994). The traditional nursery potting medium in Nigeria is topsoil dug up from farmland and amended with poultry manure. Digging up agricultural soils will not only render the land unproductive for cropping, but will also make the land prone to erosion and other forms of degradation (Baiyeri, 2006). The case of soiless potting media is a common practice in the developed countries. The quality of seedlings obtained is influenced by the composition of media used (Corti et al., 1998, Wilson et al., 2001, Sahin et al., 2005, Baiyeri, 2003).

Moringa oleifera is not widely cultivated in Nigeria as other perennial crops. Most people in Nigeria plant it as a fence in their compound. Just like other perennials, manure application is essential to obtain good yield. Beaulah (2001) observed improved growth and performance of Moringa oleifera plant due to the application of organic manure and fertilizers. The objectives of this study therefore were:

1.      To evaluate four nursery media on seedling emergence.

2.      To determine the effect of poultry manure on growth of three accession of Moringa oleifera raised in the plastic pots, and.
3.      To determine the optimum level of poultry manure which will enhance growth and yield of Moringa oleifera plant grown in the field.....


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