EPIDEMIOLOGY OF GASTRO-INTESTINAL HELMINTH INFECTION OF GOATS IN NSUKKA URBAN

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ABSTRACT

Gastro-intestinal helminth infection of goats in Nsukka Urban was investigated to determine the parasites prevalence and intensity. Faecal samples were collected from the abattoir located at Ikpa community Market. Samples were analyzed using direct smear and concentration methods. Single and mixed infection of the parasites were observed. Single infections observed were nematodes while mixed infections of the parasites were observed. Single infection observed were nematodes while mixed infections involved a combination of nematodes and cestodes. No single cestode was seen. The parasites identified were Trichostrongylus colubriformis,Strongyloides papillosus, Haemonchus contortus, Oesophaogstomum columbianum and Moniezia spp. No trematode was 94.2%. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between breeds of goats slaughtered in the abattoir. Age-related prevalence of the gastrointestinal helminth infections also showed no significant (p>0.05) difference between the two recorded age-groups. Female goats (96.6%) had more gastro-intestinal parasites than male goats (90.0%) but the difference in prevalence was not significant (p>0.05). The mean total egg output was 68.92 ± 6.43 (Egg per gram) while mean nematode and cestode egg output were 70.021 6.38 and 0.641 0.119 (Egg per gram), respectively. There was no significant difference in mean intensity of different gastrointestinal helminthes between breeds of goats. Moniezia species had least mean egg output. Female goats showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) total and nematode egg output than male goats. The high prevalence rate of gastrointestinal helminthes parasites could be due to the type of animal management system practiced which is the extensive pastoralism. This involved keeping large number of goats together which could increase the degree of pasture contamination leading to higher prevalence.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page
Table of Contents
List of Tables
List of Figures
List of Plates
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW
1.1       Introduction
1.2       Significance of the Study
1.3       Research Objectives
1.4       Literature Review
1.4.1    Gastrointestinal nematode infections
1.4.1.2 Epidemiology of nematode parasites
1.4.1.3 Lifecycle of nematode parasite
1.4.1.4 Pathology of nematode infections
1.4.1.5 Diagnosis
1.4.2    Gastronitestinalcestode infections
1.4.3    Gastrointestinal trematode infections
1.4.4    Control of gastrointestinal helminthes of goat
1.4.4.1 Use of antihelmintic drugs
1.4.4.2 Control through grazing management
1.4.4.3 Biological Control
14.4.4  Enhancing host resilience and resilience though nutrition
1.4.4.5 Improvement of animal resistance though selective breading

CHAPTER TWO: MATERIALS AND METHODS
2.1       Study Area
2.2       Sample Collection
2.3       Sample Site
2.4       Analysis of Faecal Samples
2.4.1    Simple Floatation Method
2.4.2    Sedimentation Technique
2.5       Statistical Analysis

CHAPTER THREE: RESULTS
3.1       Prevalence of Gastro-intestinal Helminth Parasites in Goats
3.2       Prevalence of Different Species of Gastrointestinal Parasites in Goats
3.3       Intensity of Gastro-intestinal Helminth Parasites

CHAPTER FOUR: DISCUSSION
4.1       Discussion
4.2       Conclusion
            References
            Appendix

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW

1.1         Introduction
Livestock plays a crucial role in the economy of Nigeria and other developing nations it increases economic status of the rural poor. Due to improper care, unhygienic environment, extreme climate and close contact with infected animals, they get infected with variety of parasites. Parasitism in goat is a substantial problem affecting farmers across the nation. As gastrointestinal parasite infection is the most important limiting factor of goat productivity parasitism has a highly detrimental effect on the goat industry (Gadahi et al., 2009).
Goat represents an important source of animal protein but seem to have benefited little from veterinary care and production improvement. Goats are often the main supply of daily meat in rural area and are used in ceremonial festivities throughout the country, providing important trade between rural and urban areas. Sheep and goats together provide a large portion of the meat consumed and produce a considerable amount of manure, which is of special importance.


Production potential of livestock development programme is plagued in the tropical and subtropical areas due to prevalence of helminths which cause high mortality and great economic losses (Al-Quaisy et al., 1987). The prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths is related to the agro-climate conditions. Amongst the parasitic diseases endo-parasites are of greatest importance in goats. Common parasites of goats include Coccidia, roundworms, tapeworms and liver flukes (Bagley, 1997). The blood sucking parasite Haemonchus contortus which is found in the abomasums of goats causes significant blood loss , goat with a 500 H. contortus may lose about 250mls of blood per day (Urquhart et al., 1987) resulting in decrease in erythrocytes, lymphocytes, heamoglobin, packed cell volume, body weight and wool growth (Rasool et al., 1995; Hayat et al., 1996). The economic losses due to low quality of wool, hides and skin by various parasite infections in livestock have been recorded (Irfan, 1984). A decrease in profitability up to 15% (Restani et al., 1971) and 50% weight loss due to gastrointestinal parasite has been reported by Hussain (1985). Endo-parasites result in huge economic losses, the estimated losses due to lowered meat and wool production in slaughtered goat and sheep in Faisalabad were 31.4 million per year (Javed et al.,. 1992). The geo-climate of Nigeria is conducive for the optimum growth and proliferation of parasites.
Different breeds of goats have been adapted to different environments, the dwarf breeds are found in most ecological zones of southern Nigeria. Although adapted to local climatic and nutritional conditions, economic production of goats is hampered by infectious and parasitic diseases coupled with inadequate management (Nawathe et al., 1985).

1.2 Significance of the Study
Nigeria being a developing country depends on agriculture and animal husbandry as part of its economic development. However goat farming is done in poor and unhygienic manner and hence animals are heavily infected with different parasites including helminth parasites. This study therefore will lay down baseline parasitological and epidemiological data on the prevalence and intensity of helminth parasites of goat and suggest appropriate mitigative measures which will help in improving the health of these farm animals.


1.3 Research Objectives
(a)            General Objective

The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of the helminth parasites found in the studied animals......

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