COMPARATIVE PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSES OF METHANOLIC AND AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACTS OF THREE MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN PLANT DISEASE CONTROL

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ABSTRACT

Investigations were conducted to determine the qualitative and quantitative phytohemical properties of methanolic and aqueous leaf extracts of Chromolaena odorata L., Carica papaya L., and Ocimum gratissimum L. using standard methods. The results revealed that alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, glycosides, reducing sugars, carbohydrates, steroids, tannins and terpenoids were present in all the test plants. However, methanolic leaf extract of C. odorata had the highest amounts of saponins, flavonoids and steroids and lowest tannins content. Carica papaya had highest content of alkaloids, carbohydrates and terpenoids and lowest content of glycosides, reducing sugars and steroids, while O. gratissimum had highest composition of glycosides, reducing sugars and tannins and lowest composition of alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, carbohydrates and terpenoids. Comparisons on the aqueous leaf extracts of the test plants showed that C. odorata had the highest composition of glycosides and tannins and lowest composition of saponins, flavonoids and steroids. Carica papaya had the highest amounts of flavonoids and terpenoids and lowest composition of alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates and tannins, while O. gratissimum had the highest contents of alkaloids, saponins, reducing sugars, carbohydrates and steroids, and lowest composition of terpenoids. The compositions of the leaf extracts were significantly different at P ≤ 0.05. The significance of the test p lants and the importance of these phytochemicals were discussed with respect to the roles they play in plant disease control.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page
Table of Contents
List of Tables
List of Figures
List of Plates
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE:
1.0       Introduction
1.1       Justification for the research
1.1       Aim and objectives of the research

CHAPTER TWO:
2.0       Literature Review
2.1       Uses of plant extracts
2.2       Uses of chemicals as fungicides
2.3       Phytochemical analysis
2.4       Description and uses of the test plants

CHAPTER THREE:
3.0 Materials and Methods
3.1       Collection and identification of plant materials
3.2       Preparation of plant samples
3.3       Preparation of plant extracts
3.3.1    Methanolic extract preparation
3.3.2    Aqueous extract preparation
3.4       Phytochemical screening
3.5       Quantitative phytochemical analysis
3.5.1    Test for alkaloids
3.5.2    Test for flavonoids
3.5.3    Test for tannins
3.5.4    Test for saponins
3.5.5    Test for glycosides
3.5.6    Test for carbohydrates
3.5.7    Test for steroids
3.5.8    Test for reducing sugars
3.5.9    Test for terpenoids
3.6       Quantitative phytochemical analysis
3.6.1    Determination of total alkaloid content
3.6.2    Determination of total flavonoid content
3.6.3    Determination of total saponin content
3.6.4    Determination of total glycoside content
3.6.5    Determination of total reducing sugars content
3.6.6    Determination of total tannin content
3.6.7    Determination of total carbohydrates content
3.6.8    Determination of total steroids content
3.6.9    Determination of total terpenoids content
3.7       Research design
3.8       Method of data analysis

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Results
4.1       Qualitative phytochemical analysis of aqueous leaf
            extracts of Chromolaena odorata, Ocimum gratissimum
            and Carica papaya
4.2       Qualitative phytochemical analysis of methanolic
            leaf extracts of C. odorata, O. gratissimum and C. papaya
4.3       Quantitative phytochemical analysis of aqueous leaf extracts
            of C. odorata, O. gratissimum and C. papaya
4.4       Quantitative phytochemical analysis of methanolic leaf extracts
            of C. odorata, O. gratissimum and C. papaya
4.5       Comparison of secondary metabolites in C. odorata,
            O. gratissimum and C. papaya
4.6       Effect of treatments (solvents) on secondary metabolites

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0       Discussion and Conclusion
References


CHAPTER ONE

1.0                                                                            INTRODUCTION
A large number of chemicals have been developed for the control of plant diseases, but due to the growing awareness of the hazardous side effects of these chemicals, more emphasis is given to the use of biocontrol agents. One of the major challenges in the field of Plant Pathology is the need for some ecofriendly and safe alternative control strategies for agriculture, which has led researchers to turn their attention to plant extracts as sources of biocontrol agents. Therefore, growing of most plants and tress now goes beyond afforestation purposes to making them available and accessible for exploitation for their natural chemical composition vis-à-vis their usefulness in the management and cure of both plant and animal diseases. These chemical compounds, known also as phytochemicals, provide defenses for the plants against diseases and other environmental factors. It is now evident that most of these plant chemicals could also be helpful in the treatment of both animal and human diseases. These phytochemicals which are bioactive include alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, saponin, tannins, terpenoids, glycosides and other phenolic compounds classified as most important (Edeoga et al., 2006). Most of these phytochemicals are used in the control of animal and plant diseases for their rich composition, which provides both preventive and curative properties.


The use chemicals has helped increase yield obtained but one of the major problems of the constant use of chemicals is the development of resistance in the target organisms. Studies in the use of plant extracts for the control of plant diseases have shown the importance of natural chemicals as a natural source of non-phytotoxic and easily biodegradable alternative fungicides and antibiotics (Akueshi et al., 2002).

Fungal diseases of plants destroy 10-30% of the total yield of crops and in some perishable fruits and tubers especially in developing countries; they destroy more than 30% of the crop yield (Kader, 2002). The quality of Irish potato is adversely affected by post-harvest handling, packaging and transportation which result in decay by microorganisms which become activated because of the changing physiological state of the produce (Agrios, 2005). Among the prevalent diseases recorded and the increased use of plants in areas of disease control has raised concerns about the side effects of agrochemicals (Kader, 2002).

1.1 JUSTIFICATION FOR THE STUDY
Fungi are the most prevalent pathogens affecting a wide range of host plants. This is often facilitated by colonization of wounded and exposed plant tissues which in turn bring about destruction and losses of economically important food crops. The ease of spoilage (especially after harvest) of plant produce could be attributed to improper storage, transportation, handling and marketing as acknowledged by the international monitoring world food resources unit (Weber, 2003). In view of these losses, man has resorted to the use of agrochemicals (biocides) in his agricultural practices despite the great justified....

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