CLOTHING MOTIVATIONS AND BEHAVIOUR OF FEMALE UNDERGRADUATES IN UNIVERSITIES IN BENUE STATE

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ABSTRACT


This study was designed to investigate the clothing motivations and behaviour of female undergraduates in universities in Benue State. Specifically the study determined (i) The motivating factors or the reasons underlying the selection and wearing of clothing by female undergraduates in Benue State universities. (ii) The types of clothing items worn by the female undergraduates. (iii) Clothing guidelines of female undergraduates in universities in Benue State. (iv) Problems encountered by the female undergraduates in clothing themselves. (v) Solving problems of female undergraduates clothing in universities. Five research questions were developed and two null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05level of significance. The study was conducted in Benue state. The population for the study consisted of 6619 female undergraduates from federal university of agriculture. Benue state university and university of Mkar while 659 constituted the sample for the study. A structured questionnaire with five sections was used as instrument for data collection. Mean was used to analyse the data generated from the research questions while ANOVA was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The study revealed that fifteen motivating factors underlined the selection and wearing of clothing; sixteen types of clothing items were selected and worn, with eighteen guidelines for wearing clothing items by female undergraduates in the universities in Benue State. Twenty two problems were encountered by the female undergraduates in their choice of clothing and thirteen ways of solving the problems encountered by female undergraduates were identified. There was no significant difference in the mean responses of female undergraduate students in federal, state and private universities on the motivating factors underlying the selection and wearing of clothing and guidelines for wearing the items. It was recommended that the university administrations should incorporate element of good etiquette into the orientation programmes of the first year undergraduates. It was also recommended that good clothing for females should be incorporated into the programme of Nigerian universities as compulsory course to be taken by female undergraduate.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page
Table of Content
List of Tables
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study
Statement of the Problem
Purpose of the Study
Significance of the Study
Research Questions
Hypotheses
Scope of the Study

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
Conceptual Framework
Concepts of Clothing
Function of Clothing
Clothing Motivations and Behaviour
Clothing Perception
Clothing of Female Undergraduates in Universities
Factors that Influence Clothing Decision Choice
Problems encountered by Female Undergraduates in their clothing practice
Ways of enhancing Clothing Practice of Female Undergraduates
Theories of Clothing
Related Empirical Studies
Summary of Literature Review

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
Design of the Study
Area of the Study
Population for the Study
Sampling and Sampling Techniques
Instrument of Data Collection
Validation of the Instrument
Reliability of the Instrument
Method of Data Collection
Methods of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION OF DATA
Research Question 1
Research Question 2
Research Question 3
Research Question 4
Research Question 5
Hypothesis 1
Hypothesis 2
Finding of the Study
Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Restatement of the Problem
Summary of Procedure Used
Principle Findings of the Study
Conclusion
Implication of the Study
Recommendations
Suggestions for Further Research
REFERENCES
APPENDICES


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

Clothing is anything placed on the body to adorn or to motivate behaviour (John and Foster, 1990). It includes all the different garments, accessories or ornaments worn by people as well as their make-up and styles. Theories have attempted to explain the motivation factors underlying clothing choices and decision. Such theories include: modesty, immodesty, protection and adornment theories (Marshal Jackson, Stanley, Kefgen and Touchie 2000).


Modesty theory focuses on standard regarding the area of the anatomy to be concealed and state that clothes are worn solely to conceal or cover nakedness (Marshal et al. 2000). Various cultures have rules about modesty that relate to their use of clothing. The immodesty theory on the other hand states that clothing is not to cover nakedness but to attract attention. The argument here is that wearing of garment is far erotic than in going without them (Marshal et al. 2000). The protection theory view physical protection and psychological protection as major reasons of purpose of wearing clothes. Adornment theory stresses that clothing is used to decorate or adorn the body according to the standard or culture (Weber, 1990). People adorn themselves via clothing for many reasons for adornment namely for psychological protection to ward off evil spirit, for sexual attraction and as means of motivating the female undergraduates clothing practices.
Clothing protects the human body from extreme weather and other features of the environment. It is worn for safety, comfort and modesty and to include all the different garments, accessories or ornaments worn by people as well as their make-up and styles. Many theories have attempted to explain the motivation factors underlying clothing choices and decision. Such theories includes: modesty, immodesty, protection and adornment theories (Marshal, Jackson, Stanley, Kefgen and Touchie, 2000).

People therefore wear different types of clothing based on certain motivations and this affects their behaviours. Motivation is a process in which people choose between alternative forms of behaviour in order to achieve personal goals (Cole 2002). Motivation involves internal force that actuates behavioural pattern, through process, action or reaction. Negative force or positive forces can act as actuators. When used affectively, this force can help individuals or group work toward achieving common goals. These forces can be either intrinsic or extrinsic. For motivation to take place the intrinsic and the extrinsic force in an individual must produce a behavioural change.

Motivation is varied by socio-economics, group. Culture, background and the programming of the brain. This means that clothing helps to form impressions about an individual cultural, emotional, moral, educational, social etc. status and personality (Fialola and Pullen 1982 in Ozuogwu 2004). It follows that an individual’s clothing is an important factor in the interpretation of body image, which in turn affects response behaviour of his observers (Buckey and Rouch.....


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