STUDY AND IMPLEMENTATION OF WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK TO MANAGE ENERGY IN A SMART HOME

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ABSTRACT

Many studies have shown that smart homes can use energy more efficiently than traditional buildings. Thus, several researchers have advocated building a smart home in order to reduce energy consumption. In the literature, Wireless Sensor Network is adopted as the dominant technology for every proposed smart home . In this thesis I explain the challenges of the state of the art technology in WSN for energy management in a smart home using one of the most prominent LPWAN technologies: LoRaTM. The system is not only low-cost but is also flexible enough to accept multiple sensor nodes and collect the data, irrespective of the distance from the gateway to the various appliances in the smart home. Leveraging on LPWAN technologies, I establish a series of models that cover various aspects of a LoRa network.

Then, a new Network Simulator 3 (NS3) module is introduced to simulate a LoRa-based IoT network in a typical urban scenario. Finally, the performance of the LoRa system is evaluated and analysed.


I emphasize the importance of having a generic system in which its LoRaWAN network configuration function set (router and coordinator) mode of data transmission will be implemented in API mode to accommodate any sensor node for better packet reception (RX) and transmission (TX).


TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF PROCEDURES
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background of the Research
1.2       Brief Overview of Wireless Sensor Network
1.2.1    Characteristics of Wireless Sensor Networks
1.2.2    Requirements for Wireless Sensor Networks
1.3       Statement of Purpose
1.4       Motivation
1.5       Objectives of the Research
1.6       Research Methodology
1.7       Organization of the Thesis

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       State of The Art
2.2       The Advent of Smart Homes
2.3       Present Smart Home
2.4       Benefits of the Smart Home
2.5       Overview of Wireless Communication Technology
2.5.1    Solutions for IoT Connectivity
2.6       The LoRa Modulation
2.6.1    LoRa’s Chirp Spread Spectrum Implementation
2.6.2    LoRa Physical Layer Packets
2.6.3    Spreading Factor Orthogonality
2.6.4    Main Semtech Chips and Independent Implementations
2.7       The LoRaWAN Standard
2.7.1    Topology and Device Classes
2.7.2    Packet Structure and MAC Commands
2.7.3    Encryption and Device Activation
2.7.4    Frequency Bands
2.7.5    Notable LoRaWAN Implementations
2.8       European Regulations
2.8.1    Effective Radiated Power (ERP) Limitations
2.8.2    Duty Cycle Limitations
2.8.3    Channel Line-up

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1       Implementation
3.2       Network Simulator 3
3.3       The LoRa Module
3.3.1    PeriodicSender
3.3.2    End Device LoRaMac
3.3.3    EndDeviceLoraPhy
3.3.4    LoraChannel
3.3.5    LoraNetDevice
3.4       Helpers and Tests

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1       Performance Evaluation
4.2       Throughput Performance
4.3       Comments

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK
5.1       Conclusions
5.2       Future Work

REFERENCES


CHAPTER ONE :

INTRODUCTION


1.1 Background of the Research

Many surveys have shown that smart homes can utilize energy more efficiently than traditional buildings (Alhaj et al., 2015). Thus, several researchers have advocated building a smart home in order to reduce energy consumption. In the literature Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is adopted as the dominant technology for every proposed smart home .The WSN, rather than Wi-Fi, has been popularly employed for remote control and monitoring applications because it is low cost and consumes little power. For a smart home or home automation various sensors for reducing energy consumption are applied to acquire data from objects and their surrounding environments. Sensors are the devices that can replace or extend the human being’s physical senses of sight, hearing, taste, smell and touch.

The application of WSN has been proven to be more flexible and advantageous in such areas as smart homes, telemedicine, industry, environmental monitoring, agriculture, warehouse tracking, transport logistics and surveillance. A WSN consists of spatially distributed autonomous sensors that monitor and control variables that include temperature, voltage, and current. Smart homes can also be called “automated homes” as they can, inter alia, control devices and be used for surveillance purposes.


One of the main purposes of smart homes is to reduce energy consumption which remains the focus of this research work (Nagar et al., 2016). To achieve this goal, smart controls must be implemented in a smart home. Additionally, sensors and smart controllers, by monitoring the exterior and interior lighting levels, enable daylight to be used to reduce the use of electrical lighting while sufficiently illuminating the home. Although many ideas about smart lighting control for energy saving in smart homes have been proposed, a smart lighting control system with high reliability and control accuracy remains to be found....

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This is a Postgraduate Thesis and the complete research material plus questionnaire and references can be obtained at an affordable price of N3,000 within Nigeria or its equivalent in other currencies.


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