STUDIES ON THE ABUNDANCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF MOSQUITOES AND PREVALENCE OF MALARIA IN YABO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF SOKOTO STATE, NIGERIA

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ABSTRACT


Study was conducted to determine the abundance and distribution of mosquitoes and the prevalence of malaria parasites in Yabo Local Government Area. Mosquito breeding sites identification employed the use of a digital camera to snap pictures of areas where mosquitoes were observed. Mosquitoes eggs, larvae, pupa were collected and identified using the dipping method while indoor mosquitoes were caught from rooms,/toilets between the hours of 8 - 10pm using insecticide spray. A total of 370 blood samples were collected, analyzed using thick/thin films and stained using standard procedures. Twelve different mosquitoes breeding sites were identified. A total of 5,425 adult mosquitoes were caught, out of which 3,546 (65.36 %) were indoors and 1,879 (34.64%) caught outdoors. Statistical analysis conducted indicated significant difference (p< 0.05) between the two collections. Mosquitoes encountered belong to three genera of Anopheles, Culex and Aedes. The most predominant genus was Culex with a total of 5,967 (99.48%) adult mosquitoes, while Anopheles were 28 (0.52%) adult mosquitoes caught. Out of 370 blood samples examined, 118 (31.9%) were positive for malaria. The only plasmodium species encountered was Plasmodium falciparum with Kilgori district having the highest positives 76 (20.5%). Results showed that malaria infection is significantly recorded (P<0 -9="" .05="" 1="" 33="" 66="" 87="" against="" aged="" and="" as="" august="" basis="" considering="" control="" disease.="" effective="" females="" for="" from="" implication="" importance="" in="" information="" malaria="" medical="" month="" mosquitoes="" mounting="" nuisance="" of="" provided="" serve="" span="" strategies="" study="" the="" this="" those="" understanding="" vector="" will="" years="">


TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF PLATES

CHAPTER ONE
1.0       INTRODUCTION
1.1       Justification
1. 2      Aim and Objectives

CHAPTER TWO
2.0       LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       Mosquitoes
2.1.1    Morphology of Mosquitoes
2.1.2    General Life Cycle of Mosquito
2.1.3    Economic Importance of Mosquitoes
2.1.4    General Distribution of Mosquitoes
2.1.5    Mosquito Distribution in Nigeria
2.2       Plasmodium/Malaria parasites
2.2.1    Life Cycle of Malaria Parasites
2.2.2    Clinical Manifestations
2.2.3    Pathogenicity
2.2.4    Pathogenesis of Severe Malaria
2.2.5    General Pathology of Malaria Parasites
2.3       Epidemiology
2.4       Diagnosis
2.4.1    Clinical Diagnosis
2.4.2    Parasitological Diagnosis
2.4.3    Imuno Diagnostic Methods
2.5       Treatment of Malaria
2.5.1    Drug Resistance in Malaria Treatment
2.6       Control of Malaria
2.6.1    Biological Control
2.6.2    Environmental Control
2.6.3    Personal Protection
2.7       Roll Back Malaria (RBM) in Nigeria
2.7.1    Challenges  with Roll Back Malaria in Nigeria on the road to success/way forward

CHAPTER THREE
3.0       MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1       The Study Area
3.2       Ethical considerations
3.3       Selection of study site
3.4       Collection of Mosquito stages indoor and outdoor habitat
3.4.1    Dipping Techniques for Sampling different Developmental Stages of Mosquito
3.4.2    Shallow Skim Technique
3.4.3    Complete Submersion
3.4.4    Partial submersion
3.4.5 Collection of adult mosquito
3.4.6    Identification of Mosquitoe stages
3.5       Sample Size Determination For Malaria Prevalence
3.6       Collection of Blood Samples
3.7       Analysis of Blood Samples
3.7.1    Thin Blood Film
3.7.2    Thick Blood Film
3.7.3    Fixing of Thin Blood Film
3.7.4    Staining Method and Examination
3.7.5    Statistical Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0       RESULTS
4.1       Mosquito Breeding Habitats
4.2       Mosquito Abundance
4.3       Survey of Malaria Prevalence in Yabo and Kilgori Districts

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0       DISCUSSION
5.1       CONCLUSION
5.2       RECOMMENDATIONS
REFERENCES
APPENDICES


CHAPTER ONE

1.0        INTRODUCTION

Mosquitoes are insects belonging to the Phylum Arthropoda and Order Diptera. (Service, 1980; Cantwell, 2010). There are 3,100 known species of mosquitoes belonging to 35 genera which are further arranged into three sub-families. (Service, 1980). The distribution and population density of adult mosquitoes depend on a number of factors. These factors include, the behavioural patterns of the species, the prevailing climatic conditions of the area, the availability of breeding sites (i.e habitats) and food sources (Gilles and Warrel, 1993).

Mosquitoes are best known for their role in the transmission of diseases to man dependening on number of factors. Some of these factors are the vector potency of the arthropod in the replication of parasites within its body cavity as well as its ability to transmit the parasite to human during blood meal. Prevailing climatic conditions of the area as well as availability of breeding sites which enhances mosquitoes abilty to survive, breed and reproduce favourably (WHO, 2005a).


Among the more important diseases transmitted by mosquiroes are malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, encephalitis and filariasis. Of these, malaria is by far the most important. Malaria accounts for nearly 110 million clinically diagnosed cases per year, 60% of outpatient visits and 30% hospitalizations, an estimated 300, 000 children die of malaria each year, and up to 11% of maternal mortality in Nigeria (WHO/UNICEF, 2013). In addition to the direct health impact of malaria, there is also a severe social and economic burden on the communities and country as a whole, with about N132 billion lost to malaria annually in form of treatment costs, prevention, loss of man hours etc. Nigeria (WHO/UNICEF, 2013). Malaria is especially a serious problem in Africa, where one in...


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