REMOVAL OF HEAVY METAL IONS FROM WASTE WATER USING A GROUNDNUT SHELL AND TEA BAG AS A NATURAL ADSORBENT

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ABSTRACT


Sample of waste collected at Kanwuri Area Sokoto, was analyzed using a groundnut shell and tea bag as natural adsorbent, by adopting the method of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. And this research showed that groundnut shell and tea bag can be effectively used as an excellent adsorbent for the removal of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cr, from aqueous solution. This study also highlights the effect of different parameters such as, contact time, PH, adsorbent dose initial concentration of heavy metal ions. The concentration of heavy metal ions obtained from the analysis, were calculated to be 99.2%, 8.0%, 96.0%, 94.0%, and 92.0%, for Copper, Zinc, Nickel, Lead and Chromium, respectively.


TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page
Table of contents
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE
1.0       Introduction
1.1       heavy metal ions
1.2       Waste water
1.3       Groundnut shell
1.4       Tea bag
1.5       Literature review
1.6       Aim and objective

CHAPTER TWO
2.0       Materials and method
2.1       Materials
2.2       Preparation of sample
2.3       Preparation of waste water
2.4       Preparation of absorb ate
2.5       Analysis of the adsorbent

CHAPTER THREE
3.0       Result and discussion
3.1       Result
3.2       Discussion

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0       Conclusion and Recommendation
4.1       Conclusion
4.2       Recommendation
            Reference
            Appendix


CHAPTER ONE

1.0       INTRODUCTION

The awareness of increasing water pollution implies studies concerning water treatment, removal of heavy metal ion from industrial waste water are primary importance. The use of natural material for heavy metal ions becomes a concern in all countries. Natural materials that have potential to be used as low cost adsorbent as they represent unused resources are widely available (Dean et, al 1992).

The application of low cost natural adsorbent including carbonaceous material, agricultural product and waste by-product has been investigated in many previous studies which have been recognized as potential alternative to the conventional technologies such as precipitation, ion exchange, solvent extraction and liquid membrane for removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewater because these processes have technical and economical constraints (Nguyen et, al; 2001).

1.1         HEAVY METAL IONS


The term “heavy metal “ is collectively applied to a group of metal and metal like element with density greater that 5g/cm3 and atomic number above 20 like (Amal wt, al;2012). And also heavy metal refers to any metallic chemical element that has relatively high atomic weight and is toxic or poisonous at low concentration e.g (Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Hg, Cd) etc. or a heavy metal is a chemical element within the upper range of atomic weight (Ward, 1995). Heavy metals ion have been excessively release into environment due to rapid industrialization and cause a major pollutant in the environment due to creatures and human being at high concentration (Beliles 2007). Copper (Cu) is highly toxic because it is non biodegradable and carcinogenic, the effect of Nicket (Ni) exposure very from skin irritation to damage of the lungs nervous system; and mucous membrane. While Zinc (Zn) exposure cause depression. Lethargy, neurological signs and increase thirst. Chromium (Cr) has been considered as one of the top 18th toxic pollutant and because of its.....

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