OPTIMIZATION OF BIODIESEL FROM COCONUT (Cocos nucifera) SEED OIL

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ABSTRACT


Coconut seeds was investigated for its use as biodiesel feedstock. Oil was extracted from coconut seeds using soxhlet extraction method where 67.2% yield of oil was obtained. Biodiesel synthesis was developed and optimized using Box-Behnken design in Response Surface Methodology to study the effect of experimental variables such as methanol to oil ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction temperature and reaction time on the extracted oil from coconut seeds. The model shows optimum conditions of biodiesel yield of 79% were found at 6:1 alcohol/oil ratio, 1% catalyst concentration (KOH), reaction temperature of 650C and reaction time of 40 min. respectively. At the end of experimental design it was found that the catalyst concentration and reaction time significantly affect the biodiesel yield than the molar ratio among others under the range of values studied. The produced biodiesel was analyzed for its physicochemical and characterized for its fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profile using GC-MS. The fuel properties of biodiesel obtained showed that except cetane number, diesel index and sulphur content that were higher than the recommended ASTM values all other determined properties were within the ASTM specification indicating that its quite suitable as an alternative source of fuel.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Table of Contents
List of Tables
List of Figures
Abbreviations
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE
1.0       Introduction and Literature Review
1.1       Introduction
1.1.2    Biodiesel
1.1.3    Vegetable Oils
1.2       Literature Review
1.2.1  Coconut (Cocos-Nucifera)
1.2.2    Biodiesel Production
1.2.3    Factors Affecting Biodiesel Production
1.3       Fuel Properties of Biodiesel
1.4       Environmental Consideration on use of Biodiesel
1.5       By-products of Biodiesel
1.6       Aim and Objectives
1.7       Scope of Work
1.8       Justification of study

CHAPTER TWO
2.0       Materials and Methods
2.1       Apparatus/Instrument and Reagents
2.2       Methods
2.2.1    Preparation of Reagents
2.2.1    Sampling
2..2.3 Sample Preparation
2.2.5    Oil Extraction
2.2.6    Determination of Percentage Yield
2.2.7    Determination of Moisture Content
2.2.8    Determination of Acid Value
2.2.9    Determination of Saponification Value
2.2.10  Determination of Ester Value
2.2.11  Determination of Iodine Value
2.2.12 Transesterification of Oil
2.2.13 Determination of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (Fame) of Coconut Oil Using Gas Chromatography (GC-MS) Method
2.2.14 Fuel Properties of Biodiesel (COME)
2.2.15 Experimental Optimization of Biodiesel

CHAPTER THREE
3.0       Results and Discussion
3.1       Results
3.2       Discussion

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0       Conclusion and Recommendations
4.1       Conclusion
4.2       Recommendations
References
Appendices


CHAPTER ONE


1.0      INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW


1.1   INTRODUCTION


The replacement of mineral fuel by biodiesel is one of the effective ways of solving the problem of saving and effective usage of energetic resources. Biodiesel is becoming an increasingly acceptable alternative to fossil diesel because of narrowing gap between worldwide oil production and consumption. Also Nigeria’s vegetation and rainfall regime support agrarian activities that can produce feedstock for biofuel production. Sustainable biofuel production will create more jobs and stimulate related industries thus improving the socio-economic industries of the country (Itodo et al., 2010).

The surge of interest in biodiesel has highlighted a number of positive environmental effects associated with its use. These potentialities include reduction in greenhouse gas emission, deforestation, pollution and the rate of biodegradation (US department of energy, 2003).

1.1.1 BIODIESEL



Biodiesel is a non-petroleum based fuel made from virgin or used vegetable oil (both edible and non-edible) and animal fat. The main sources or biodiesel can be non-edible oils obtained from plants species available in different countries. Direct application of vegetable oils as fuel for diesel engine is not possible due to its higher viscosity, hence reduction of vegetable oil viscosity....


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