OPTIMISATION OF BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM SOME PLANTS WASTE USING ACIDS PRETREATMENT

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ABSTRACT


The potentials of Saw dust, Rice husk and Groundnut shells were investigated for bioethanol production. The substrates were pretreated using 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% solution of dilute H2SO4 and HCl. The pretreated substrates were thermally treated at 1050C in order to detoxify them. The pretreated substrates obtained using different concentrations of acids were fermented using Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Yeast). The results show that Rice husk treated with 4% H2SO4 (2.689%dryweight) has the highest result followed by the same sample treated with 2% H2SO4 (2.423%drywieght) then followed by the Saw dust treated with 8% H2SO4 (1.802%dryweight) in which the least result is observed with groundnut shells treated with 8% H2SO4 (0.862%dryweight). All these were observed to be significantly different as calculated and checked between individuals differences at 0.5% confidence limit using ANOVA. Also from the results, it is clear that the samples treated with sulphuric acid treatments were better at reserving the actual sugar (glucose) content. While samples treated with HCl has their sugar content reduced; as this shows the effect of thermal treatment and detoxification processes involved. Conclusively, individual substrates treated are said to be in different acid measures. Thus, saw dust is optimum at 8% H2SO4 and 6% HCl while rice husk shows its optimum progress at 6% in both H2SO4 and HCl. and ground nut shells are good at 4% H2SO4 and 6% HCl acid treatments.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF TABLES
ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW
1.1       Introduction
1.2       Research Problems
1.3       Scope and Limitation
1.4       Aim and Objectives
1.5       Literature Review
1.5.1    Ethanol
1.5.2    Bioethanol
1.5.3    Natural Occurrence of Ethanol
1.5.4    Uses of Ethanol
1.5.5    Economic Importance of Bioethanol Production
1.5.6    Problems Associated with Ethanol Production
1.5.7    Bioethanol Feedstocks
1.5.8    Technology of Bioethanol Production
1.5.9    Bioethanol Production from Cellulose Materials in Particular
1.5.10  Common Alcohol Processing Steps
1.5.10.1 Pretreatment Process
1.5.10.2 Cellulose Hydrolysis
1.5.10.3 Detoxification
1.5.10.4 Fermentation
1.5.10.5 Separation/Distillation
1.5.11  Proximate Analysis
1.5.11.1 Determination of Moisture Content
1.5.11.2 Determination of Ash Content
1.5.12  Applicable Methods of Analysis

CHAPTER TWO: MATERIALS AND METHODS
2.1       Materials
2.1.1    List of Apparatus/Equipments
2.1.2    List of Reagents Used
2.1.3    Reagents Preparations
2.1.4    Sample Collection and Sample Treatment
2.2       Methods
2.2.1    Pre-treatment Process
2.2.1.1 Acid Pre-treatment
2.2.2    Thermal Treatment
2.2.3    Detoxification
2.2.4    Fermentation
2.2.5    Distillation
2.3       Proximate Analysis Test
2.3.1    Determination of Moisture Content
2.3.2    Determination of Ash Content
2.3.3    Organic Matter Content and Carbon Content Composition
2.3.4    Determination of Sugar Content
2.3.5    Determination of Ethanol Content
2.4       Statistical Analysis

CHAPTER THREE: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
3.1       Results
3.1.1    Physical Characteristics of the Samples
3.1.2.   Proximate Composition of the Samples
3.1.3    Reducing Sugar Content Result
3.1.4    Ethanol Concentration Result
3.2       Discussion
3.2.1    The Proximate Composition Analysis
3.2.2    The Reducing Sugar Content
3.2.3    The Bioethanol Content

CHAPTER FOUR: CONCLUSION AND RECONMENDATIONS
4.1       Conclusion
4.2       Recommendations
REFERENCES
APPENDICES


CHAPTER ONE


INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW


1.1         Introduction


Biofuels (Bioethanol, Biodiesel, and Biogas) are fuels produced from biomass (a biodegradable material) for heating, electricity generation and transport purposes etc (Garba, 1999). Bioethanol can be produced from any biological feedstock’s that contains appreciable amount of sugar/carbohydrate or materials that can be converted into sugar such as starch or cellulose. Ethanol from renewable resources has been of interest in recent decades as an alternative fuel to the current fossil fuels. Lignocelluloses biomass like wood and agricultural crops residue, e.g., straw and sugar beet pulp are potential raw materials for producing several high-value products like fuel ethanol and biodiesel (Yoswathana et al., 2010). Because of the recent increase in the gas price and interest in environmental issues, the demand of ethanol as substitute of gasoline is rapidly increasing. Basically, there are five (5) steps in ethanol production, and these include; grinding, cooking, fermentation, distillation, and hydration. In each step, there are several ideas to improve its productivity and benefits (Onuki, 2010).

For a large production of bioethanol; it is convenient to use cheaper and abundant substrates always. So by using waste products from forestry, agriculture and industries, the cost of feedstocks may be reduced; if we consider producing ethanol from feedstocks such as maize, sugarcane, sweet potatoes, rice pulps etc; which constitutes a larger percentage of the production cost (Energy Commision of Nigeria, 2010).


For the reduction of food competition it is necessary to use lignocelluloses (a complex polymer made up of three components of carbohydrates; which are cellulose....


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