MOBILE BASED IMAGE ANALYSIS SYSTEM FOR CERVICAL CANCER DETECTION

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ABSTRACT



Cervical cancer is the third major killer disease in developed and developing countries. Whereas screening and other preventive measures reduce the mortality rate in developed countries, mortality rates still remain very high in developing countries. This project focuses on the analysis of a digital image of the cervix; captured with a low-level camera, under a contrast agent: the visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) is known as one of the reference methods to detect cervical cancer. Gaussian and mean filter techniques were used to remove the speckles. A segmentation algorithm was used to isolate the region of interest (ROI) from the image. Additionally a canny edge detection algorithm was used to find edges. Furthermore, quantification and classification of the images were done. An Android application was used to integrate all the above. This allows usage in rural settings. The results obtained were quite satisfactory (Specificity 79% and Sensitivity of 83%).


TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.0 Background of Study
1.1 Problem Statement
1.2 Motivation and Purpose
1.3 Research Contribution
1.4 Research Objective and Scope
1.5 Target Platform
1.6 Thesis Overview
1.7 Chapter Summary

CHAPTER TWO:
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Related Works
2.1 Digital Images
2.1.1 Image Acquisition
2.1.2 Image Pre-processing
2.1.3 Image Segmentation
2.1.4 Image Classifications
2.2 Android Programming
2.2.1 Introduction
2.2.2 The Android Software Stack
2.2.3 Android Building Blocks
2.3 Chapter Summary

CHAPTER THREE:
CERVICAL CANCER
3.0 Introduction
3.1 Anatomy of Human Cervix
3.2 Development of Precancer and Cancer
3.3 Causes and Symptoms
3.4 Treatment and Diagnosis
3.5 Colposcopy
3.6 Cervical Cancer Imaging
3.7 Chapter Summary

CHAPTER FOUR: APPROACH AND METHODS
4.1 Design Methodology
4.1.1 User Interface Design
4.1.2 Image Enhancement
4.1.3 Conversion to greyscale
4.1.4 Image Segmentation
4.1.5 Edge detection
4.1.6 Image Classification
4.1 Conceptual Diagram
4.2 System Design
314.2.1 Activity Diagram
4.2.2 Class diagram
4.3 Chapter Summary

CHAPTER FIVE: RESULT AND DISCUSSIONS
5.1 Data Set
5.3 Performance and Measurement
5.3.1 Sensitivity
5.3.2 Specificity
5.4 Results
5.4 Discussion
5.5 Chapter Summary

CHAPTER SIX: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
6.1 Summary
6.2 Conclusion
6.3 Future Work
REFERENCES
APPENDIX


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION


1.0 Background of Study

Cervical cancer is one of the curable types of cancers in women if detected early. Most cases of cervical cancer are caused as a result of infection with certain types of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) [4, 6]. Although women who have early exposure to sexual relationships and those with multiple sexual partners are at high risk of contracting HPV and eventually, cervical cancer, it is however possible for a woman to be infected with HPV even if she has had only one sexual partner. In the developed nations, women above the age of 30, who are at high risk of HPV infection, are given HPV vaccines, to reduce the chances of having the disease [4].

Traditionally, optical tests such as VIA, cervicography and colposcopy that employ direct visual examination of the cervix, are becoming popular as a diagnostic tool. Healthcare professionals study the cervix at about one minute after applying the 5% acetic acid to the cervix area. Acetowhite region (AW), which is the suspected region of cervix, and other vascular abnormalities such as mosaicism, punctuation and vasculature may appear [4].

Cervical cancer is second only to breast cancer as the highest cause of cancer-related death of women in the world [1]. In 2012, it was the fourth leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide with an estimate of about 65,700 deaths. Unfortunately, up to 90% of these deaths occurred in the developing nations of the world, especially in sub-Saharan Africa; 60,100 deaths in Africa, 28,600 in Latin America and the Caribbean, and 144,400 in Asia. India, the second most populous country in the world, accounted for 28,600. Latin America and the Caribbean, accounted for 25% (67,500) of cervical cancer deaths [3].

The main reason for this discrepancy is the lack of organized, population-wide, screening programmes and medical personnel to administer and translate various test involved [6].


This thesis work seeks to address the problem of the lack of medical personnel to administer and translate various test by coming up with the automation of cervical cancer detection using digital images of low resolution, deployed on Android mobile devices.

1.1  Problem Statement

More than 80% of the total deaths recorded due to cervical cancer in women have occurred in sub-Saharan Africa. The absence of both the resources for screening to aid early detection, and most importantly, the scarcity of medical personnel to interpret these results is the major contributing factor. Hence, the need to design an Android application, which performs; the analysis and classifies cervix digital image. This will be very useful in the areas with limited or no medical experts.

1.2  Motivation and Purpose


The development in mobile computing in the recent year has made it a great tool in healthcare [5]. These devices are gaining more acceptability due to their portability and reduced price. We are not aware of any existing work done in the deployment of an automated cervical cancer detection tool on mobile platform....


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This is a Postgraduate Thesis and the complete research material plus questionnaire and references can be obtained at an affordable price of N3,000 within Nigeria or its equivalent in other currencies.


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