EFFECTS OF DRYING METHODS ON NUTRIENT CONTENTS OF Moringa oleifera (Lam.) LEAVES

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ABSTRACT


The study was carried out to determine the effect of drying methods on the nutrient contents of Moringa oleifera at the Agric. Chemical Laboratory (Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto) and The Energy Research Field of Sokoto Energy Center, Sokoto. Fresh leaves were collected and cleaned then dried using different drying methods viz. shade drying, solar drying, oven drying and sun drying. The treatments were analyzed for proximate and mineral contents using standard methods. Statistical analysis indicates that moisture was lowest in solar drying (2.67%). Shade drying produces the lowest lipid content (2.33%). High protein content was recorded under shade drying (28.50%). Overall, shade drying was noted to preserve the nutrient contents of Moringa oleifera better. In view of economic importance of Moringa, there is need to educate the local populace on the best method of preserving this vegetable.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE
TABLE OF CONTENT
LIST OF TABLES
ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE
1.0       INTRODUCTION
1.1       Statement of the Research Problem
1.2       Justification
1.3       Aim and Objectives

CHAPTER TWO
2.0       LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       Botany of Moringa oleifera
2.2       Uses of Moringa
2.2.1    Nutritional Uses
2.2.2    Traditional Uses
2.2.3    Plant Growth Enhancer
2.2.4    Animal Feed Fortification
2.2.5. Water Purification
2.3 Nutritional values of dried leaves powder

CHAPTER THREE
3.0       MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1       Study Area
3.2       Sample Collection and Preparation
3.3       Drying Methods
3.3.1    Sun Drying
3.3.2    Shade Drying
3.3.3    Solar Drying
3.3.4    Oven Drying
3.4       Chemical Analysis
3.4.1    Proximate Analyses
3.4.2    Determination of Crude Moisture
3.4.3    Determination of Crude Nitrogen
3.4.4    Determination of Crude Protein
3.4.5    Determination of Carbohydrate or NFE
3.4.6    Determination of crude Ash
3.4.7    Determination of Crude Fiber
3.4.8    Determination of crude Lipid
3.5       Mineral Analysis
3.5.1    Calcium and Magnesium Determination
3.5.2    Phosphorus Determination
3.5.3. Sodium and Potassium Estimation

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 RESULTS
4.1       Proximate Analysis
4.2       Mineral Analysis

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0       DISCUSSION
CONCLUSION
RECOMMENDATION
REFERENCES
APPENDICES


CHAPTER ONE

1.0                                                                  INTRODUCTION


Moringa oliefera Lam. commonly referred to simply as “Moringa” belongs to the kingdom Plantae, Order Brassicales, Family Moringacacae, Genus Moringa and Species Moringa oliefera.

Moringa oliefera is native to the Indian subcontinent and has become naturalized in the tropical and subtropical areas of the world. It is the most widely cultivated species of the Genus Moringa, which is the only genus in the Family Moringacacae. It is an exceptionally nutritious vegetable tree with a variety of potential uses. Moringa oliefera trees are well naturalized in the northern parts of Nigeria where the leaves are popularly known as ‘zogala’ and widely consumed by populace (Pallavi and Dipika, 2010).


The plant is described as a fast-growing plant and drought resistant crop variety. It can survive in less fertile soil (Fahey, 2005, Anwar et al., 2007). The tree itself is rather slender, with drooping.....


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