EFFECT OF WATER RESTRICTION AND ASCORBIC ACID SUPPLIMENTATION ON RECTAL TEMPERATURE, BODY WEIGHT AND HEMATOLOGICAL INDICES IN JAPANESE QUAILS IN SOKOTO, NIGERIA

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ABSTRACT


The study was conducted to determine the effect of water restriction and ascorbic acid supplementation on body weight, cloacal temperature and hematological parameters of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) during the early dry season (November to December). Temperature and relative humidity during the first, second and third weeks of the experiment were 37.7 0C and 19 %, 28.9 0C and 33 % and 25.5 0C and 78 % respectively. One hundred and fifty (n=150) three-week old male (30) and female (120). The birds were assigned to groups A, B and C comprising of fifty birds per group. Fifty percent water restriction was tested on groups B and C while group C was supplemented with 250mg Ascorbic acid (AA). The results of the study demonstrated significant (P < 0.05) increase in body temperature in the group supplemented with vitamin C compared with the non-supplemented groups in the first week. While, a significant (P < 0.05) increase in body temperature between the control and the water deprived and also water deprived and supplemented with vitamin C was recorded in the second week. However, no corresponding increase in body temperature between all the groups was observed in the third week. There was also no significant difference between any of the groups in red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, packed cell volume (PCV), total white blood cell count and differential cell count. There was significant (P < 0.05) increase in serum glucose level in group C compared to the other groups. Significant (P < 0.05) increase in urea and creatinine were recorded in groups B and C, but there was no significant difference in total protein, albumin, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorous, and uric acid. Histopathology of the liver and kidney tissues indicated varying level of necrosis in groups B and C. Base on the findings of this research, it is concluded that, the quail appeared not to be affected by water restriction and 250mg AA supplementation was not beneficial in quail subjected to water restriction. We recommend that other researches should be conducted at different season of the year using different doses of AA.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title
Table of contents
List of Tables
List of Figures
List of Plates
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE
1.0       INTRODUCTION
1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.2       STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
1.3       AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
1.4    JUSTIFICATION

CHAPTER TWO
2.0       LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       WATER
2.1.1    Functions of Water
2.1.2    Water Supply
2.1.3    Water Quality Parameters for Poultry
2.1.4    Potential Problems Associated With Water Contaminants in Poultry
2.1.5    The Use of Water to Combat Heat Stress
2.2       TEMPERATURE
2.2.1    Thermoregulation
2.2.2    Thermoneutral Zone
2.2.3    Heterothermy
2.3       AVIAN HEMATOLOGY
2.4       DYNAMICS OF BODY WEIGHT CHANGES IN POULTRY
2.5       VITAMIN C
2.5.1    Physiological Function of Ascorbic Acid in Mammals
2.5.2    Antioxidant
2.5.3    Pro-oxidant
2.5.4    Immune System
2.5.5    Antihistamine
2.6       WATER RESTRICTION / DEPRIVATION

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 EXPERIMENTAL SITE
3.2 EXPERIMENTAL CONDITION
3.2.1 Housing of birds
3.2.2  Grouping of quails
3.3 ANIMAL TREATMENT
3.4       METEOROLOGICAL DATA AND CLOACAL TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT
3.5       SAMPLE COLLECTION
3.6 HEMATOLOGICAL ANALYSIS
3.7       BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS
3.8       STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0       RESULTS
4.1       CLOACAL TEMPERATURE
4.2       BODY WEIGHT CHANGES IN QUAILS
4.3       HAEMATOLOGY
4.4       SERUM BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS
4.5       HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0       DISCUSSION
5.1       CLOACAL TEMPERATURE
5.2       BODY WEIGHT
5.3       HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS
5.4       SERUM BIOCHEMISTRY
5.5       HISTOPATHOLOGY
5.6       CONCLUSION
5.7       RECOMMENDATIONS
REFERENCES


CHAPTER ONE

1.0       INTRODUCTION


1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY


The Japanese quail also known as corturnix quail, (Corturnix cortunix japonica) belongs to the kingdom animalia, phylum chordate, class Aves, order Galliformes, family phasianidae, sub-family perdicinae, genus corturnix and species japonica. The bird is a species of old world quail found in East Asia. They are migratory, species, breeding in Manchuria, southern Siberia, northern Japan and the Korean peninsula and dwell in grass land and cultivated field. Adults are approximately 20 centimeters in length. The bird is used mainly for table and egg production (Sam, 2010).


The Japanese quail, also known as Coturnix quail, pharaoh's quail, stubble quail and eastern quail differs considerably from the North American Bobwhite quail. The Bobwhite is larger than the Japanese quail, however the Coturnix produces larger eggs. The incubation time needed for fertile eggs is shorter (14-17 days) compared to Bobwhite quail eggs (23 days). Coturnix may start laying eggs as early as 6 weeks of age compared to 16 weeks for the Bobwhite (Sam, 2010).

Japanese quail have been widely distributed in Europe and Asia. Egyptians used to trap large quantities from their farm lands for meat. In Japan, these birds were kept as pets beginning in the eleventh century. By 1910 however, Japanese quail became popular in Japan for egg and meat production. They were introduced in the United States by bird fanciers around 1870 (Sam, 2010).

It has been reported that wild Coturnix lay eggs in small clutches of 5-12 eggs and incubate them naturally. Certain mutants of Japanese quail have been developed for their color of plumage, color of egg shell and body size (Sam, 2010).


Japanese quail can be sexed as early as three weeks of age, based on the feather color which is distinct for the male and female of the species. When matured, the Japanese males weigh in the range of 100-140 grams and they reach sexual maturity at 5 to 6 weeks of age. The plumage color on the throat and breast will be cinnamon or rusty brown. When males are sexually matured, a large glandular or bulbous structure appears above the cloacal opening. If this gland is pressed, it will produce a foamy secretion. Males generally live longer than females. Male crow and the sound has been described as "Ko-turn-neex". Adult Japanese quail females are generally....

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