CULTURAL BELIEF AND IMMUNIZATION IN BIRNIN KEBBI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, KEBBI STATE, NIGERIA

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ABSTRACT

The hostility of community member towards immunization has been a concern to the health workers and this has been attributed to their cultural belief. The objective of this study is therefore to examine cultural beliefs and immunization of children. 120 questionnaire were administered were designed for three categories of respondents who are parent, health personnel’s and traditional and religious leaders. Each group mentioned was administered with 40 questionnaires each as they were randomly sampled from each group. Simple percentage and chi- square was used to present the result of the questionnaire and the hypothesis. The result showed that cultural beliefs affect people’s response to the immunization programme in Birnin Kebbi local government areas, that the attitudes of people toward immunization of children have affected the effectiveness of the immunization programme in Birnin Kebbi local government area and lastly, the immunization program has help eradicate some diseases within Birnin Kebbi local government areas. Conclusively, the cultural beliefs of those in the community have affected the effectiveness of the programme therefore it was recommended that there is need for more awareness and reorientation on immunization


Keywords: Immunization, culture, face to face, sickness


TABLE CONTENTS

Title Page
Abstract
Table of contents

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.0       Background of the study
1.1       Statement of the problem
1.2       Research Question
1.3       Research Objectives
1.4       Significance of the study
1.5       Scope\ limitation of the study
1.6       Definition of the terms

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0       Introduction
2.1.0    Conceptual Definitions
2.1.1    Cultural Aspect
2.2       Concept of Beliefs
2.3       Immunization
2.4       Forms\ Types of immunization
2.5       Children
2.6       Empirical Review
2.7       Theoretical frame work
2.8       Research Hypothesis

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.0       Introduction
3.1       Research Design
3.2       Study Area
3.3       Study population
3.4       Sample Size and Sampling Procedure
3.5       Method of Data Collection
3.6       Method of Data Analysis
3.7       Ethical Consideration

CHAPETR FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS
4.1       Introduction
4.2       Data Presentation
4.3       Hypothesis
4.4       Discussion of the Finding

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Summary
5.3       Summary of the finding
5.4       Conclusion
5.5       Recommendation
5.6       Suggestion for further Research
References
Appendix


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0   Background to the Study


Generally speaking, immunization is not newly introduced in this world. This is because it was shown in history that our forefathers have their own traditional ways of immunizing themselves and their families, through the use of leaves of trees, minerals vegetable and armlet. But nowadays due to the existence and establishment of new modern health care facilities that immunization becomes modernized.

The concept of immunization or how to artificially induce the body to resist infection, received a big boost in 1796 when Edward Jenner the first world’s vaccinator, inoculated a young boy in England and successfully prevented him from getting smallpox, he also used a lancet to scratch some infected material from a woman with cowpox (similar to smallpox) under the boy’s skin. Journal list>proc (bayl univ med cent) (2005, 18(1):21-25).


Nigeria’s expanded programmed on immunization [EPI] was first initiated in 1979 and the federal government of Nigeria, through the federal ministry of health continues to place high priority on immunization. During that period the strategies used in the programmed were divided in two;

1.      Fixed post; that is by visiting general hospitals, rural health centers, dispensaries and clinics.

2.      Mobile team; that is by moving from one settlement to another. The aim and objectives of this programmed is to reduce diseases like; tuberculosis, measles, whooping, cough, pertisus, neonatal tetanus, diphtheria and child mortality rate. It was sponsored by donor agencies such as WHO, UNICEF, and World bank.

In 1995 WHO, UNICEF, AND WORLD BANK withdrew their active support for immunization and therefore departments were created at federal, state and local governments. The programmed was also renamed as; National Programmed on Immunization (NPI). Public health reports (2013; 112(1): 10-20).

In 1996 the campaign for eradication of polio started all over the country with northern part of the country being the main focus area, but taboo, cultural beliefs and attitude hindered the successful achievement of the program in most parts of the country of which Kebbi State is one. In Birnin kebbi Local Government areas such taboos and beliefs are actually affect the realization of the goals of the program. Such these taboos and beliefs are: illiteracy, religious....


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