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This research project is an assessment of built-up expansion in Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto from 2007 to 2015. Data for this research project was collected from both primary and secondary sources. The primary source of data include field observation, interview and satellite imageries. While secondary data include relevant published materials such as textbooks, journal articles, dissertations, reports, and the internet. The method used is satellite image processing, image classification, overlay operations, vectorisation and digitizing. The study revealed that built-up expansion is more towards the north-east and eastern part of the study area and to some extent in the central part. From the result of analysis, it was discovered that in 2007, there are 208 structures covering 145,715 square meters. While in 2015, 50 structures were raised with an area of 92,328 square meters. The total built-up structures are 250 with a total area of 238,044 square meters. It is recommended that, the management should solicit for adequate funding in order to maintain and sustain the original master plan.


Title page
Table of content

1.0 Introduction
1.1       Statement of research problem
1.2       Aims and objectives
1.3       Research question
1.4       Justification of the study
1.5       Scope of the study
1.6       Significance of study
1.7       Study area
1.7.1    Geographical location
1.7.2    Physical characteristics
1.7.3    Climate
1.7.4    Population
1.8       Material and methods
1.8.1    Materials and softwares
1.8.2    Types and source of data
1.8.3    Method of data analysis

2.0 Introduction
2.1 The implication of built-up expansion on ecological footprints
2.2 The effect of built-up expansion on agriculture
2.3 The impact of built-up expansion on population growth and socio-economic aspects
2.4 The effect of built-up expansion on the surface temperature of the earth
2.5 The implication of built-up expansion on geomorphology
2.6 Environmental impact of urban expansion
2.7 Health and environmental impact of urban expansion
2.8 Environmental impact of urban expansion on biodiversity
2.9 Usmanu danfodiyo university, sokoto master plan
2.10 The land use plan of the usmanu danfodiyo university, sokoto

3.0 Introduction
3.1 The trend and direction of built-up expansion
3.2 The deviation of built-up in relation to the master plan

4.0 Introduction
4.1 Summary
4.2 Conclusion
4.3 Recommendations
List of tables
List of figures



1.0          Introduction

Built-up means the built- up areas, while Expansion is a space through which anything is expanded (Advanced English Dictionary).

Built-up areas have been expanding throughout the world. Monitoring and prediction of the built-up is not only important for the economic development but also acts as sentinels of environmental decline important for ecologically sustainable development of a region. (ARER, 2003).

In the year 2000, urban areas occupied only about 2% - 3% of the earth’s surface; However, they sheltered nearly half the world’s population. The rapid expansion of urban areas, is dramatically changing the landscape of the urban-rural fringe, clearly highlighting the intensity of the ecological footprints of cities. The ecological footprint is defined as “the total area of productive land and water required continuously to produce all the resources consumed and to assimilate all the wastes produced, by a defined population, wherever on earth that land is located”. Kitzes, etal (2007). The wealthy quarter of the world’s population consume over three-quarters of world’s resources, and of the total global resource depletion and pollution, contribution from cities is probably 70% or more. (RWWMEIA, 1996). For example, the per capital ecological footprint of North Americans is 4-5 ha/capita, which accounts for three times their fair share of the Earth’s bounty. Similarly Japan’s footprint is about 2.5 ha/capita and the Netherland’s is 3.3 ha/capita, accounting for about eight and is times greater than the areas of total domestic territories respectively. Lenzen and Murray found Australian’s ecological footprint to be about 13.6 ha/capita, if determined in terms of actual land use on all types of land. These footprints are associated with the provision of non-farm job opportunities, shifts to higher-valued farm enterprises (such as vegetables, fruits, or livestock) to meet the demands of urban consumers.

On the other hand, the provision of environmental services and landscape amenities place heavy demands on the ecological system in terms of resource extraction, disposal of waste, and discharge of pollutants. Urbanization is mostly taking up agricultural lands and it is estimated that one to two million hectares of cropland are being taken out of production every year in developing countries to meet the land demand for housing, industry, infrastructure, and recreation. The 20th century witnessed some of the most dramatic urban transformations in the history of earth’s terrestrial environments. Lenzen, etal (2007).

1.1         Statement of Research Problem

Urban environment is one of the most dynamic systems on earth and rapid urbanization has been a major development in most parts of the world. The effects of urban concentration become noticed in the 19th century with the alarming rate of urban population, and this trend continues. (De Sherbinin etal, 2002) noted that several decades of accelerating urban growth have exerted profound environmental socio-economic impacts felt in every parts of the world. The continuously growing population culminates in overcrowding resulting in pressure on the land and, consequently, becomes a burden to limited civic cycle amenities forcing the “middle class” as well as the builders to move to outlying....

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