AFRICAN UNION MISSION AND PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS IN AFRICA (A CASE STUDY DANFUR CONFLICTS)

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ABSTRACT


This research examines the role of the African Union (AU) in peacekeeping operations in the Darfur region, Sudan. The study examine the nature and the operation of AU military mission towards making peace in the region. With the aid of qualitative method, the research revealed that the issue of mandate, inadequate fire power and equipment alongside multilingual composition had hampered the effectiveness of the mission. It also revealed effectiveness of the mission. Thus, the study concluded that the aforementioned had indeed hampered the deterred of the mission from achieving its set objectives. Finally, the study recommend development of novel means of fund raising, concentration on preventive measures and harmonization of AU task force for the success of the mission in Darfur and elsewhere in Africa.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page
Abstract
Table of content

Chapter One
1.1       Introduction
1.2       State of the Problem
1.3       Research Questions
1.4       Aims and Objectives
1.5       Significance of the Study
1.6       Research Methodology
1.7       Scope and Limitation
1.8       Research Assumptions

Chapter Two
2.1       Introduction
2.2       Conceptualizing Peacekeeping
2.3       UN Peacekeeping Generation in Somalia
2.4       AU Peacekeeping in Burundi and Sudan
2.5       Theoretical Framework

Chapter Three: Case Study of Darfur Conflicts
3.1       Introduction
3.2       Economy and Demography of Darfur Region
3.3       Problems Facing Darfur in Contemporary Times
3.4       Nature of the Darfur Conflict
3.5       African Union Peace Operation in Darfur
3.6       Test of Hypothesis
3.7       Major Research Findings

Chapter Four: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
4.1       Summary
4.2       Conclusion
4.3       Recommendations
            References


CHAPTER ONE

1.1        INTRODUCTION

Peace is a stated loved and sought after by so many, be it for economic, social or political reasons. Basically, peace means the absence of hostility and the presence of humility among people. The absence of peace causes a lot of humans and problems to the people. It is on this premised that peace keeping had evolved to ensure the presence of adequate long lasting peace. Hence, peacekeeping as a term entails the keeping of agreed peace.

The United Nation (UN) being the body that initiated peacekeeping shows that the first peacekeeping operation data back to 1948 when the United Nations security council deployed it UN peacekeeping troops as observers to the middle East. (Caplan, 2008). Over the years, hundreds of thousands of military personnel as well as tens of thousands of UN police and other civilian from almost all countries have joined and served in various capacities around the world, although mostly in the third world (Caplan, 2008).


Peacekeeping has proven to be a very effective tool in ensuring transition from conflict to peace in affected nations or countries. Today, peacekeeping effort have exceeded the maintenance of peace and security and include, supporting the organization of election, protection and promotion of human right and also rendering assistance in restoring the rule of law or even creating it in some cases (Caplan, 2008). The success of any peacekeeping cannot be determined easily as the operatives are usually placed in the most physical and politically challenging environs.

Peacekeeping has within it fold unique abilities including legitimacy, burden sharing and an ability to deploy and sustain troops and police from around the globe, integrating them with civilian peacekeepers to advance multidimensional mandates. Peacekeeping operations are guided by; consents of the parties, meaning parties to the existing conflict must be part of the intended operation. In partiality; the peacekeeping operatives are neural in carrying out their duties of restoring peace or normally to the state. The non use of force except in self-defense and defence of the mandate, operatives do not attack but only defend their scalp as well as that of the mandate (Caplan, 2004).

More than ten years have passed since Darfur, the western region in Sudan erupted in bloody conflict. The crisis in Darfur is not an accidental disaster or a catastrophe that humanitarian intervention can reverse or solve. The conflict is not as simple as presented in the media, which cast the conflict in terms of Arabs versus black Africans....

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