POTENTIAL HEALTH IMPLICATIONS OF LIQUID HERBAL MEDICINE IN JIMETA-YOLA REGION, NORTHEASTERN NIGERIA

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ABSTRACT

No studies have been conducted, to examine the negative impacts of liquid forms of local herbal medicine sold in Yola and Jimeta in Adamawa state, Nigeria. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the potential negative health impacts of these medicines, by conducting lab experiments to investigate the presence of pathogenic bacteria in purchased herbal medicine samples. 17 samples were purchased from Yola market and Jimeta. Standard laboratory experiments were conducted, using Lysogeny Broth Agar to culture bacteria, numerous selective media to identify different bacterial species, and bacterial load of the herbal medicine samples were determined, using serial dilution. The result showed that all samples purchased were contaminated with bacteria. Out of the 17 samples analyzed, 15 were contaminated with Escherichia coli, 9 with Salmonella sp., and 4 with Staphylococcus aureus. Half of the samples from Jimeta had microbial load that exceeded the limit set by WHO and the European pharmacopoeia, and their microbial load ranged from 6.0x105cfu/g to 3.4x105cfu/g. The other half purchased from Jimeta, which did not exceed the limit, ranged from 1.9x103cfu/g to 3.1x104cfu/g. The results showed that, most locally prepared herbal medicine in Yola and Jimeta, are likely to be contaminated with pathogenic microbes. Herbal medicine users are therefore at risk of getting infections, while trying to cure ailments. Regulations on the preparation of liquid herbal medicine should be implemented, to ensure safety and efficacy of herbal medicines, as this is a serious public health issue. The public should also be wary of buying from unlicensed practitioners.

Keywords


Herbal medicines, microbial load, bacterial contamination, Yola and Jimeta.



TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF FIGURES

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
HYPOTHESES, AIMS, & OBJECTIVES

CHAPTER 2
METHODS
Study area and sampling
Materials
Lab methods
Serial dilution

CHAPTER 3
RESULT

CHAPTER 4
DISCUSSION

CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSION
REFERENCES


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

It may not be breaking any world records right now, but herbal medicine once used to be the only solution to bring back our ancestors from the brink of death before the development of synthetic drugs. The use of herbal medicine reduced as modern medicine evolved. Today, many people are finding their way back to the use of herbal medicine, for the treatment of numerous illnesses.


Traditional medicine


Often, the term herbal medicine is confused with "traditional medicine." Traditional medicine comprises of different health practices, knowledge, beliefs and approaches that consist of plant, animal and mineral-based prescriptions including profound treatments, and practices used singularly or in combination with others to keep up sound health, to additionally treat, prevent or diagnose ailments (WHO, 2003). Herbal medicine on the other hand, is an integral part of traditional medicine (TM), which means it is only a part of traditional medicine.

Herbal medicine


The World Health Organization defines herbal medicine as that, which is made up of herbs, herbal materials, preparations, and finished natural products, which consists of active ingredients parts of plants or other plant materials (WHO, 2003). Other natural substances such as fungal, honeybee, and mineral products are incorporated into the scope of herbal medicine (Awodele, Daniel, Popoola, & Salami, 2013).


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