ASSESSMENT OF BACTERIA FOUND IN THE AMERICAN UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA (AUN) FACILITIES AND POTENTIAL HEALTH IMPACTS

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ABSTRACT


Globally, human health is under threat due to the presence of diseases caused by microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses. Bacteria are found on almost all surfaces with which people come into contact and therefore pose a threat to human health. Antimicrobial resistance is a major health concern as these microorganisms can cause untreatable diseases. I tested the surfaces found in three buildings on the campus of the American University of Nigeria in Yola, Adamawa State, for the presence of harmful bacteria. Swabs collected were streaked on lysogeny broth agar to determine if bacteria were present. Selective and differential media were used to identify the type of bacteria found. Also, the samples were subjected to an antimicrobial susceptibility test using replica plating. The result showed the surfaces were contaminated with Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Enterococcus faecalis, with E. coli and E. aerogenes being resistant to ampicillin. This study showed that AUN is not only contaminated with pathogens, but also with bacteria resistant to ampicillin. The institution should provide hand sanitizers around campus and also create awareness programs on the importance of hand washing. Also, the efficiency of cleaning can be increased by making use of stronger agents and increasing the frequency of cleaning.

Keywords: American University of Nigeria, bacteria, antimicrobial resistance, microbial contamination, surfaces, students and staff


TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF FIGURES

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
Antibiotic resistance
Resistance in bacteria
Increasing health risks due to microorganisms
Public places and bacteria
Bacteria in universities
HYPOTHESIS
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

CHAPTER 2
MATERIALS & METHODS
Study Site
Sampling
Materials
Lab analysis

CHAPTER 3
RESULTS
Surface analysis
Microbial Identification
Antimicrobial susceptibility analysis

CHAPTER 4
DISCUSSION

CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSION
References


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Human health is under serious threat globally by microorganisms, especially viral and bacterial diseases. Bacteria and viruses can be found on surfaces and could potentially cause harm. Infectious diseases are emerging at an alarming rate and have contributed to a good number of deaths globally. Although over the past decade the mortality rates of these diseases have declined, the impact these diseases have on the world remains substantial. Infectious diseases are the second leading cause of death worldwide, with 57 million deaths occurring each year, as reported by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (Fauci, Touchette, & Folkers, 2005).



There are increasing global concerns about certain issues such as antibiotic-resistant bacteria, Zika virus, HIV/AIDS, Ebola virus, and SARS. These diseases have a high mortality rate and have been identified by the World Health Organization as diseases likely to cause epidemics (WHO, 2015). In Africa, emerging diseases are a public health concern not only due to their high mortality rate, but also due to the fact that developing countries lack good health facilities. Despite countermeasures that have been developed due to advanced technology (therapeutics and vaccines), infectious diseases that affect both human health and the economic stability of societies have not been contained (Morens & Fauci, 2013). Bacteria and viruses that have developed resistance to antimicrobial agents are more life threatening and are now a serious public health concern.

Antibiotic resistance

Antimicrobial resistance has become a major global concern. Aside from bacteria and viruses, other microorganisms are rapidly developing a resistance to antimicrobial agents being used to kill them. This evolution makes the treatment of infectious diseases less effective and, in the long run, may cause death. Though sometimes viewed as an apocalyptic fantasy, antibiotic resistance, which might allow even minor injuries to kill, is indeed a reality in the 21st Century (WHO, 2014). Antimicrobial resistance is a global concern because it will make the treatment of infectious diseases less effective and prolong illnesses (WHO, 2016). Additionally, organ transplantation, C-section delivery, and other medical procedures may become more risky due to the lack of effective antimicrobials.



The increasing global concern for antimicrobial resistance has urged scientists to further research this issue. Projections made by scientists showed deaths that could be attributable to antimicrobial resistance yearly by 2050 will be high (Fig.1). Most deaths will most likely occur in Asia and Africa. Although antimicrobial resistance is increasing, less researches have been carried out on new drugs to curtail these resistant pathogens.


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