THE CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF CIGARETTE SMOKING AMONG YOUTH IN DUTSIN-MA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KATSINA STATE

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ABSTRACT
This study is set to examine the causes and consequences of cigarette smoking among youths in Dutsinma local government Area of Katsina State. The study examined the factors responsible for youth involvement in cigarette smoking and its effect on the health and general well-being of youths in the study area. The study employed the quantitative and qualitative research methods to obtain data from the respondents. The stratified random sampling technique was used to select 100 respondents for the study.  Questionnaires and indepth interviews methods were used to obtain data from the respondents. Findings of the study revealed that the major factors responsible for cigarette smoking among youths include the need to feel sociable, to chase bore-dam and to feel warm. It was also discovered that smoking carried a lot of consequences ranging from health related issues, to possibility to influence youths into anti-social behaviour. The study recommended that policy frameworks be draw up by the government towards discouraging tobacco companies from operating in the country. also, public enlightenment and sensitization on the negative effect of cigarette should be stepped up.

Keywords:     smoking, adolescents, information, implication


TABLE OF CONTENT

Title Page
Table of Content
List of  tables
Abstract

Chapter One
Introduction
1.1       Background of the study
1.2       Statement of the problem
1.3       Research Questions
1.4       Objective of the study
1.5     Research hypotheses
1.6       Significance of the study
1.7       The scope of the study
1.8       The definition of terms
1.9     Plan of the Work
1.10     Historical background of the study area

Chapter Two
2.0       Introduction
2.1       The concept of smoking
2.2       The history of smoking
2.3       The factors responsible for smoking among youth
2.4       The consequences of cigarette smoking
2.5       Nature of cigarette smoking among youth
2.6       The socio-economic statues among cigarette smokers in Dutsinma Local Government Area
2.7       Indicators of Socio- Economic Status In Adolescents

Chapter Three
3.0       Introduction
3.1       Research design
3.2       Study population
3.3       Sampling and sampling procedures
3.4       Method of data collection
3.5       Validity of Research Instrument
3.6       Method of Data Analysis
3.7       Limitation of the Study
3.8       Methodological Problem
3.9       Theoretical Framework

Chapter Four
4.0       Introduction
4.1       Social-demographic Data
4.2       Responses of respondents on the factors responsible for Cigarette smoking
4.3       Responses of respondents on the effect of Cigarette smoking among youth

Chapter Five
5.1       Introduction
5.2       Summary of findings
5.3       Conclusion
5.4       Recommendation
            Reference

Appendix


CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
Smoking is a practice in which a substances such as, tobacco, marijuana or cannabis is burned and the smoke tasted or inhaled Akintaro (2015). It is primarily practiced as a route of administration for recreation of drug use, as combustion release the active substances in drugs such as nicotine and makes them available for absorption through the lungs. It can be done as a part of rituals to induce trances and spiritual enlightenment, (Lock, Reyndds and Tansey, 1998). Smoking is one of the most common forms of recreational drug use. In recent times, tobacco smoking is by far the most popular form of smoking ahead of pipes, cigars and chewing tobacco and is practiced by over one billion people in the majority of all human societies resulting in nearly 2 billion people, that is a third of the world’s population being exposed to pulmonary tuberculosis pathogen (Philips 2010; World Health Organization, 2002).
Smoking is one of the most common addictions of modern times. It has been implicated as an etiological agent for various chronic diseases, including a variety of infection, cancer, heart disease, and respiratory illness such as chronic obstacle pulmonary disease, that have impairment in the balance between cells growth and cells death, which, put together, are leading the cause of morbidity and mortality in today society (Zhonget al, 2008; Mehta et al, 2008). Unless smoking cigarette patterns are reserve, the world health organization estimated that by 2020-2030, cigarette smoking will be responsible for 10million death per year, with 70percent of them occurring in the developing counties like Nigeria, Ghana, Cameroon, Egypt, Senegal and many other countries in Asia, Latin America (WHO 2001; Suriyaproum et al.; 2007).
Smoking has been shown to be a leading cause of premature mortality and morbidity resulting in several millions of deaths globally. It has been predicted that if the pattern currently seen among youth continues, a lifetime of tobacco use would result in the deaths of 250 million children and young people alive today, most of them in developing countries (WHO, 2012). National Population Commission (2009) submitted that Nigeria is one of the most populous countries in Africa, with an estimated population of 162 million people of which youth are estimated to be more than 30%. In Nigeria, the prevalence of tobacco use among adults(12.3% males < 1% in females) is generally lower than in more developed countries, however, prevalence among youth tends to be higher than among adults, a mean lifetime smoking prevalence of 26.4% was reported among secondary school students with values ranging from 7.2% to 42.9% (Odukoya, Odeyemi, Oyeyemi and Updhyay, 2013).
Cigarette smoking has been associated with an extensive list of health disorders as well as reduction of life expectancy (Detels 2002; Doll et al 2004). On the average, cigarette smokers lose about 15 years of their life (WHO 2008)  and an estimated 4 million.... 


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